Presentation on theme: "Rocks, Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Rock Cycle, and Watersheds"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rocks, Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Rock Cycle, and Watersheds
2 Rocks – Types and Characteristics Igneous Rocks:OriginTextureCharacteristicsMineral compositionState whether each is a characteristicof a plutonic or volcanic rock:Large crystal sizeVesicularSmall crystal sizeBatholithPumiceSolidified lavaSolidified magma
3 Which graph best represents the textures of granite, pegmatite, and rhyolite?
4 Rocks – Types and Characteristics Sedimentary:Types: Clastic, chemical, organicEnvironment of formation
5 Environment of Formation Sediments accumulate in streams, lakes, and oceans. Sediments deposit based upon water velocity.
6 Which graph best represents the correct relationship between the discharge of a river and the particle size that can be transported by that river?
7 Rocks – Types and Characteristics Metamorphic Rocks:Parent rocksHeat and pressureMore dense; less poroustypes of metamorphismregionalcontact/localTexturefoliated vs. nonfoliated
9 Measuring Weathering Mechanical: Chemical: Lab----Sugar Cubes: 1. Solving for changes in mass and volume2. Calculating Rate of Change (ESRT Page 1)Chemical:Lab----Acid Rain and Rock Types1. Solving for mass loss2. Calculating Rate of ChangeBe able to predict future changes based on observations and measurements.
10 Acid Rain and its Effects on Rocks: Exposure Time = 48 Hours Rates of WeatheringAcid Rain and its Effects on Rocks: Exposure Time = 48 HoursRock TypeInitial Mass (g)Final Mass (g)Rate of Change(g/hour)Mass after 100 hours (g)Marble58.1145.96Sandstone42.6242.53Calculate the rate of change for each rock type and predict the mass for each rock type if exposed for additional 52 hours.
11 Erosion = Transport Agents of erosion Wind Water Ice Describe the agent oferosion in the picture.
12 Particle Size and Water Velocity Sediments were analyzednear the shore of a nearbystream. The sediments weremostly between 0.2 – 1.2 cm indiameter.1.Which sediment particletype has that diameter?2. What velocity (cm/s) is requiredto move the sediment particle?3.If the sediment was compactedand cemented together, what typeof sedimentary rock will it form?4. The velocity of a stream wasmeasured to be 75 cm/s. Whatsediments could be transportedat that velocity?
13 Characteristics of Sediments PorosityPermeabilityWater retentionSaturationDescribe the relationship betweenporosity and permeabilityDescribe the relationship between water retention and particle sizeDescribe the relationship betweenParticle size and porosity/permeability
14 The diagram below shows columns A, B, C, and D that contain different sediments. Equal volumes of water were poured through each column.Which column of sediment retained the most water?Which retained the least?Which is most permeable?Which is least permeable?
15 Stream and Meander Dynamics The greatest stream velocities are found closest to points:A and BB and CC and DD and AErosion will occur at points:Deposition will occur at points:Which sediments will deposit first upon entering the lake?
16 The diagram below shows several different landscape features The diagram below shows several different landscape features. Point X and Y indicate locations on the stream bank.Identify which point, X or Y, has more stream erosion and explain why the amounts of erosion are different.Explain why the stream meanders on the floodplain, but not in the mountains.The beach consists of particles with diameters from 0.01 cm to 0.1 cm. Identify the sedimentary rock that will form when burial and cementation of these sediments occur.Identify the feature at A.A
17 Resistance A cross-section of Niagara Falls Which TWO rock units appear to be most resistant to weathering and erosion?Lockport dolostone and Whirlpool sandstoneRochester shale and Albion sandstone and shaleClinton limestone and shale and Queenston shaleThorold sandstone and Queenston shale
18 The block diagram shows a volcano Which map shows the stream drainage pattern that most likely formed on the surface of this volcano?
19 Watersheds Watershed boundaries, or divides, are typically defined by the highestelevation that drainsa stream.
20 Stream Order Identify the correct Stream Order for each of the following locations.