Presentation on theme: "Review from Last Class!! Watch the video clip on Jade and answer the discussion questions: · What are two of the best ways minerals can be identified?"— Presentation transcript:
Review from Last Class!! Watch the video clip on Jade and answer the discussion questions: · What are two of the best ways minerals can be identified? ·What property can change the color of jade? Is it a physical or chemical property? Jade.asf
Introduction: ROCK TYPES METAMORPHIC SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS Focus Question: What is the rock cycle and how does it explain the formation of rocks?
a naturally occurring, inorganic solid, with a definite chemical composition and crystalline structure. What is a mineral? What is a Rock? a combination of one or more mineral particles formed through either crystallization of molten magma, settling of particles, or reheating and pressure applied to pre- existing rocks, with no set chemical composition or atomic structure.
IGNEOUS ROCKS - formed by solidification/crystallization of magma (cooling) - may form either below Earth's surface INTRUSIVE rock -or- above Earth's surface EXTRUSIVE rock The larger the crystal size the longer the rock had to form (cool) - intrusive rock (with-in the Earth): big crystals - extrusive rock (outside the Earth): small or no crystals Basalt lies under more of Earth's surface than any other rock type. Most areas within Earth's ocean basins are have by basalt under them.
IGNEOUS ROCKS CHARACTERIZED BY: - Gas pockets (vesicular - formed in volcanoes) - evenly distributed, mixed color, large crystals (formed slowly underground (intrusive) - glassy appearance (cooled very quickly from volcanoes) - Basalt is fine-grained so that the individual minerals are not visible
METAMORPHIC ROCKS - formed by heat and/or pressure - can be made from other metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks Two Types - regional - formed over a large region by an area being subducted - contact - formed along boundaries where igneous rock intrudes into pre-existing rock Fascinating fact: the oldest known rock is found in Canada, it is a metamorphic rock and is 3.96 billion years old
METAMORPHIC ROCKS CHARACTERIZED BY: MINERAL ALIGNMENT 1) Foliated: Minerals have a layered, or banded appearance, that is produced by exposure to heat and pressure 2) Non-foliated: Distorted bands of minerals, such as: marble and quartzite. Which do not have a layered or banded appearance.
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS - formed by sediments which are buried, compacted and cemented, called Lithification. - usually the only rocks in which fossils can be found Sedimentary Rock Characteristics - (sometimes) layers visible - individual particles
Rocks change due to 4 Processes: ·Weathering and Erosion ·Heat and Pressure ·Compacting and Cementation ·Melting and Cooling The Rock Cycle Interactive Map In-depth Rock Cycle http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/rockcycle
Igneous 9 metamorphic 8 7 Igneous 5 metamorphic 4 Sedimentary 6 3 10 Sedimentary 1 Igneous 2 Identify these rocks: Include where they are found in or on the earth
SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC IGNEOUS TWO OR MORE EVENLY SPACED COLORS LAYERS ORGANIC FRAGMENTS (SHELLS) GAS POCKETS MIXED-SIZED PARTICLES MINERAL ALIGNMENT MICA CRYSTALS (SHINY) ARE VISIBLE UNIFORM TEXTURE ALTERNATING LIGHT AND DARK (BANDING) FOSSILS FOLIATION Match the statements with the three rock types
Discussion Questions: In terpret the rock cycle diagram by answering the following questions: 1. In the rock cycle, how could a metamorphic rock become magma? 2.What step in the rock cycle helps sedimentary rock to form? 3.In the rock cycle, what happens to magma and lava once they cool and harden? 4.Must sedimentary rock become metamorphic rock before it can become magma? Explain your answer. 5.Describe two pathways through the rock cycle in which igneous rock can become metamorphic rock. 6.Describe a pathway through the rock cycle in which magma becomes sedimentary rock.