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Stratigraphy and fossils Figure 8.2 (page 201) Go to next slide to begin.

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Presentation on theme: "Stratigraphy and fossils Figure 8.2 (page 201) Go to next slide to begin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stratigraphy and fossils Figure 8.2 (page 201) Go to next slide to begin

2 Sedimentation in lake or sea

3 Sedimentation in lake or sea Sediments are deposited in horizontal layers and slowly change into rock.

4 Younger Older

5 Younger Older If left undisturbed, the youngest layers remain above the oldest.

6 Key Figure 8.3 (page 202) Go to next slide to begin Stratigraphy and fossils

7 Outcrop AOutcrop B I II III

8 Outcrop AOutcrop B I II III

9 Outcrop AOutcrop B I II III

10 Outcrop AOutcrop B I II III Some of the fossils found in outcrop A are the same as fossils found in outcrop B, some distance away.

11 Outcrop AOutcrop B I II III Some of the fossils found in outcrop A are the same as fossils found in outcrop B, some distance away. Layers with the same fossils are the same age.

12 Outcrop AOutcrop B I II III Some of the fossils found in outcrop A are the same as fossils found in outcrop B, some distance away. Layers with the same fossils are the same age.

13 Stratigraphic succession A composite of the two outcrops. Younger rocks Older rocks I II III

14 Select the principle of relative dating that is most useful in correlating rock strata among widely separated areas (regionally). A. Superposition B. Faunal succession C. Cross-cutting relationships D. Original horizontality Stratigraphy and fossils

15 Select the principle of relative dating that is most useful in correlating rock strata among widely separated areas (regionally). A. Superposition B. Faunal succession C. Cross-cutting relationships D. Original horizontality Stratigraphy and fossils

16 Who established the Principle of Faunal Succession? A. James Hutton B. Nicolaus Steno C. William Smith D. Harry Hess Stratigraphy and fossils

17 Who established the Principle of Faunal Succession? A. James Hutton B. Nicolaus Steno C. William Smith D. Harry Hess Stratigraphy and fossils

18 True or False: The Principle of Faunal Succession only applies to a single region, and it cannot be used to correlate stratigraphic sequences on different continents. A. True B. False Stratigraphy and fossils

19 True or False: The Principle of Faunal Succession only applies to a single region, and it cannot be used to correlate stratigraphic sequences on different continents. A. True B. False Stratigraphy and fossils

20 Select the kind(s) of geologic data that can be used to globally correlate strata. A. Fossil data B. Paleomagnetic data C. Seismic data D. Radioactive isotope data E. All of the above Stratigraphy and fossils

21 Select the kind(s) of geologic data that can be used to globally correlate strata. A. Fossil data B. Paleomagnetic data C. Seismic data D. Radioactive isotope data E. All of the above Stratigraphy and fossils

22 The radioactive decay of rubidium to strontium Figure 8.11 (page 209) Go to next slide to begin

23 Rubidium-87 nucleus NeutronsProtons Electron

24 Rubidium-87 nucleus NeutronsProtons Electron A neutron decays, ejecting an electron…

25 Rubidium-87 nucleus NeutronsProtons Electron Strontium-87 nucleus A neutron decays, ejecting an electron…

26 Rubidium-87 nucleus NeutronsProtons Electron A neutron decays, ejecting an electron… Strontium-87 nucleus …and producing a proton, which changes the atom.

27 What do all isotopes of any given element have in common? A. Number of protons B. Number of neutrons C. Combined number of protons and neutrons D. All of the above The radioactive decay of rubidium to strontium

28 What do all isotopes of any given element have in common? A. Number of protons B. Number of neutrons C. Combined number of protons and neutrons D. All of the above The radioactive decay of rubidium to strontium

29 True or False: The half-life of a radioactive isotope does not vary with changes in temperature and pressure. A. True B. False The radioactive decay of rubidium to strontium

30 True or False: The half-life of a radioactive isotope does not vary with changes in temperature and pressure. A. True B. False The radioactive decay of rubidium to strontium

31 A mineral forms and initially incorporates only the parent atoms of a radioactive isotope and no daughter atoms. The parent has a half-life of 5000 years. How long before the parent to daughter ratio is 1:3? A. 5000 years B. 10,000 years C. 15,000 years D. 20,000 years The radioactive decay of rubidium to strontium

32 A mineral forms and initially incorporates only the parent atoms of a radioactive isotope and no daughter atoms. The parent has a half-life of 5000 years. How long before the parent to daughter ratio is 1:3? A. 5000 years B. 10,000 years C. 15,000 years D. 20,000 years The radioactive decay of rubidium to strontium

33 The principles of Original Horizontality and Superposition allow for ____________ dates to be determined. A. Absolute B. Numeric C. Relative D. Radiogenic Original Horizontality

34 The principles of Original Horizontality and Superposition allow for ____________ dates to be determined. A. Absolute B. Numeric C. Relative D. Radiogenic Original Horizontality

35 In an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rocks where do the oldest rock strata occur? A. At the top of the sequence B. At the bottom of the sequence C. It depends on the depositional environment Original Horizontality

36 In an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rocks where do the oldest rock strata occur? A. At the top of the sequence B. At the bottom of the sequence C. It depends on the depositional environment Original Horizontality

37 True or False: Sediments can remain unlithified for millions of years before becoming lithified sedimentary rocks. A. True B. False Sedimentary bedding

38 True or False: Sediments can remain unlithified for millions of years before becoming lithified sedimentary rocks. A. True B. False Sedimentary bedding

39 What kind of unconformity occurs between two horizontal sedimentary beds? A. A disconformity B. A nonconformity C. An angular unconformity Sedimentary bedding

40 What kind of unconformity occurs between two horizontal sedimentary beds? A. A disconformity B. A nonconformity C. An angular unconformity Sedimentary bedding

41 What is the approximate maximum age a piece of charcoal can be in order to determine its date using the carbon-14 method of dating? A. 4,000 years B. 70,000 years C. 1,000,000 years D. 50,000,000 years Wasatch Fault

42 What is the approximate maximum age a piece of charcoal can be in order to determine its date using the carbon-14 method of dating? A. 4,000 years B. 70,000 years C. 1,000,000 years D. 50,000,000 years Wasatch Fault

43 Transgression/Regression

44 When sea-levels fall, the sedimentary record of depositions along the coast records this change, which is described as: A. a transgression B. a turbidity current C. global warming D. a regression Transgression/Regression

45 When sea-levels fall, the sedimentary record of depositions along the coast records this change, which is described as: A. a transgression B. a turbidity current C. global warming D. a regression Transgression/Regression

46 When a transgression is observed in the sedimentary record, it is interpreted from a shift to off-shore marine facies as a result of: A. decreasing global temperatures B. sea-level rise C. subduction D. sea-level fall Transgression/Regression

47 When a transgression is observed in the sedimentary record, it is interpreted from a shift to off-shore marine facies as a result of: A. decreasing global temperatures B. sea-level rise C. subduction D. sea-level fall Transgression/Regression

48 While hiking in the Grand Canyon of northern Arizona, you stop and observe an outcrop that exposes three different sedimentary rock types. On the bottom is a layer of shale, which is overlain by a layer of limestone, which is in turn overlain by a layer of sandstone. This stratigraphy sequence indicates that a _________ or a _________ in sea-level occurred in this location in the past. A. transgression; fall B. transgression; rise C. regression; fall D. regression; rise Transgression/Regression

49 While hiking in the Grand Canyon of northern Arizona, you stop and observe an outcrop that exposes three different sedimentary rock types. On the bottom is a layer of shale, which is overlain by a layer of limestone, which is in turn overlain by a layer of sandstone. This stratigraphy sequence indicates that a _________ or a _________ in sea-level occurred in this location in the past. A. transgression; fall B. transgression; rise C. regression; fall D. regression; rise Transgression/Regression

50 What trend would you expect to find in sediments accumulating in any single location along the coast during a sea-level rise? A. the sediment size should decrease as you look up-section B. the sediment should become better sorted as you look up- section C. the sediment should become more rounded as you look up-section D. all of these E. none of these Transgression/Regression

51 What trend would you expect to find in sediments accumulating in any single location along the coast during a sea-level rise? A. the sediment size should decrease as you look up-section B. the sediment should become better sorted as you look up- section C. the sediment should become more rounded as you look up-section D. all of these E. none of these Transgression/Regression

52 Changes in global sea-levels are most often caused by shifts in climate. For example, a transgression would be caused by an increase in the melting rate of polar ice caps, which is in turn driven by: A. a reduced greenhouse effect B. an increase in atmospheric dust C. an increase in global temperatures D. a reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide Transgression/Regression

53 Changes in global sea-levels are most often caused by shifts in climate. For example, a transgression would be caused by an increase in the melting rate of polar ice caps, which is in turn driven by: A. a reduced greenhouse effect B. an increase in atmospheric dust C. an increase in global temperatures D. a reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide Transgression/Regression


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