Bellringer K= know about rocks already W= Want to learn about rocks L= Learned about rocks
Rocks are composed of 1 or more minerals There are 3 types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic Rock cycle describes how the elements that make up rocks are redistributed transforming one rock into another
4 parts of Earth Inner core: mass of iron 7000 degrees Fahrenheit. Immense pressure keeps iron solid Outer core: mass of molten iron. Electric currents produce Earth’s magnetic field Mantle: slow moving molten rock or lava Crust: sand and rock
Composition of Magma Mix of molten rock, gases, and mineral crystals Elements: O, Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Na Compound most abundant: Silica Silica content affects melting temperature and impacts how quickly magma flows
Independent Work Make a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting minerals and rocks Composition Formation Group Elements Present
Bellringer Make a list of how you think rocks are used in everyday life
Magma Formation Factors: temperature, pressure, water content, and mineral composition. Temperature increases with depth in Earth’s crust Pressure increases with depth. Due to weight of overlying rock Small percentages of water are in rocks and minerals. Water content increases, melting point decrease. Different minerals have different melting points.
Igneous Rock Forms from crystallization of magma (molten rock below Earth’s surface) 2 types of igneous rocks Extrusive: fine grained, cools quickly on Earth’s surface. Example: Rhyolite Intrusive: coarse grained, cools slowly beneath Earth’s surface. Example: Granite
Igneous Rock as a Resource Useful as building materials Interlocking grain= strength Minerals in igneous rocks are resistant to weathering Example: Granite Ore deposits
Independent Work 1. What are the 2 different types of igneous rocks and describe how each forms? 2. What are the factors that affect the formation of magma? 3. Why do you think magma is usually a slushy mixture of crystals and rock. 4. Make a Frayer model: 1. 4 parts of the Earth. 2. How is magma formed. 3. Describe igneous rocks. 4. How can igneous rocks be used.
Bellringer Make a list of things you know about fossils
Sedimentary Rocks Igneous rocks are the most common on Earth’s crust Do not see igneous rocks on the ground Earth’s surface is covered in sediments Sediments= pieces of solid material that have been deposited on Earth’s surface by wind, water, ice, gravity, or chemical precipitation Sediments cement together to form sedimentary rocks. Formation begins with weathering and erosion.
Types of Sedimentary Rocks Clastic: Most common: Loose sediment: Varying sizes. Sandstone, shale Chemical: Formed from evaporation. Limestone, Rock salt Organic: Remains of once living things: Limestone, coal
Bellringer Referring to last week’s KWL, make a list of things you have learned about rocks so far under “L”
Importance of Sedimentary Rocks Form fossils: provide information about past animals and plants Understand geologic change over time: flow of rivers, wave/wind directions, shorelines Sources of oil, natural gas, and coal Uranium mined from sandstone: nuclear power Limestone: cement for construction
Weathering Weathering= physical and chemical processes that break rock into smaller pieces Chemical weathering=rocks are dissolved or chemically changed Physical weathering= minerals remain chemically unchanged. Rock fragments break off along fractures.
Illustrate the Rock Cycle Terms to be used: igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary, magma, sediment, melting, heat, pressure, weathering, erosion, deposition, cementation, burial Do not simply use the terms, you need a picture to show the process. You can refer to your rock cycle worksheet.
Erosion and Transport After rock fragments have been weathered, they are transported to a new location Erosion- movement of surface materials from 1 location to another. Agents of erosion= wind, moving water, gravity, and glaciers Examples: muddy water, dust, fine sand
Deposition Deposition= sediments are laid down on the ground or sink to bottom of bodies of water. Sediment deposited when transport stops. Fast-moving water can transport large particles. As water slows, largest particles settle, then next-largest. Settles in layers Wind moves small grains: Ex: sand dunes Glaciers move all sizes easily: large boulders, sand, mud
Metamorphic Rock Heat and pressure form metamorphic rocks Heat: derived from Earth’s internal heat Pressure: derived from vertical pressure by weight of overlying rocks or compressive forces
Independent Work Make a concept Map with Rocks in the middle. From there, you need 3 legs for each of the types of rocks Make bubbles for how formed, how used, examples, types. Describe each further