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Published byMadelynn Simon
Modified about 1 year ago
Coach Williams Room 310B
Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
Formed by cemented sediments
Solid material Deposited on Earth’s surface Wind, water, ice, gravity, chemical precipitation Form sedimentary rocks
Earth’s crust is worn down Physical or chemical processes Clastic sediments- rock or mineral fragments ◦ Greek klastos = broken
Removal and movement of rock fragments 4 Main ways: ◦ Wind ◦ Moving water ◦ Gravity ◦ Glaciers Deposition- sediments laid down ◦ Land and water
Sediments become rock Greek lithos = rock Layers of sediment = pressure Deep layers = hot temperature Cementation- mineral growth cements sediment together
Bedding- horizontal layering Graded Bedding- larger/heavier fragments at bottom layers Cross-Bedding- layer crossing over another one
Preserved evidence of once-living organisms ◦ Remains or impressions Found in sedimentary rocks
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Clastic- deposited loose fragments Chemical- dissolved minerals left behind
Classified by sediment size Coarse-grained: gravel-sized fragments Medium-grained: sand-sized fragments Fine-grained: silt-sized fragments Porosity- % of open spaces
Evaporation- leaves minerals behind ◦ Evaporites: rocks formed this way Organic- remains of once-living organisms ◦ Shells, bones ◦ Coal- remains of plant material; carbon; fuel
Energy- coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear Fertilizers Iron Walls/buildings Snapshot- cross bedding & fossils
Temperature/pressure changes rocks ◦ Composition, minerals, texture Meta = change Morph = form
Regional: large regions Contact: molten rock touches solid rock Hydrothermal: hot water alters rock
Foliated: minerals are wavy layers/bands Non-foliated: no mineral grains in one directions
Changing and re-making of rocks
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