Presentation on theme: "Formation of Sedimentary Rocks 8 th Grade Earth and Space Science Class Notes."— Presentation transcript:
Formation of Sedimentary Rocks 8 th Grade Earth and Space Science Class Notes
Sedimentary Rocks Form Through a Process 1.Weathering and Erosion 2.Deposition and Sorting 3.Lithification Let’s look at each step of this process!
Weathering and Erosion Weathering – the set of physical and chemical changes that breaks rocks into smaller pieces Size can range from microscopic to huge boulders. Physical weathering rock fragments break off Chemical weathering minerals in a rock are dissolved or are chemically changed
Weathering and Erosion Erosion – the removal and transport of sediment Four Main Agents: – Glaciers – Wind – Water Gravity – Gravity For these reasons eroded sediment will eventually wind up downhill
Deposition and Sorting Occurs when sediments settle on the ground or sink to the bottom of water (deposition) Usually large grains will settle to the bottom and finer grains on top (sorting) Sorted deposits water and wind Unsorted deposits glaciers and mudslides
Lithification Most sediments wind up at low points (valleys or bottom of ocean basin) As sediment builds up, pressure and temperature increase in bottom layers This leads to compaction and cementation!
Lithification Steps in Lithification: 1.Compaction – layers of sediment are pushed together – Some materials compact better than others
Lithification 2. Cementation – mineral growth glues sediments together into solid rock
Sedimentary Features The primary feature of sedimentary rock is horizontal layering called bedding. – results from the way sediment settles out of water or wind Graded – coarser particles towards the bottom Cross – inclined layers of sediment
Sedimentary Features When sediment is moved into small ridges by wind or wave action or by a river current, ripple marks form.
Sedimentary Features As sediment is transported, pieces that began with an angular shape knock into each other and become rounded as their edges are broken off. Harder materials more rounded Further distance traveled more rounded
Sedimentary Features Fossils are the preserved remains, impressions, or any other evidence of once- living organisms. During lithification, parts of an organism can be replaced by minerals and turned into rock.