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Warm-Up What are the five characteristics that make a mineral a mineral? List 6 ways you can identify a mineral by physical properties? How do igneous.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up What are the five characteristics that make a mineral a mineral? List 6 ways you can identify a mineral by physical properties? How do igneous."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Warm-Up What are the five characteristics that make a mineral a mineral? List 6 ways you can identify a mineral by physical properties? How do igneous rocks form? What are the two classifications of igneous rocks? How can you differentiate between the two igneous rocks? Give three specific examples

3 The Rock Cycle Movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CvDw07i YaJQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CvDw07i YaJQ Write 5 Facts Complete video assessment at the end

4 What are the differences? Similarities? Igneous Rock Metamorphic Rock

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6 Earth’s 5 Structures inner core lithosphere asthenosphere mantleouter core

7 This slide show is intended to help you understand important types of rocks. The diagram in the next slide represents the ROCK CYCLE—a scheme that represents the processes of continuous changes that connect the three major groups of rocks: SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS METAMORPHIC It also shows two other important parts of the “Rock Cycle” – SEDIMENTS and molten LAVA and MAGMA

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9 Here is another version of the Rock Cycle

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11 Warm-Up Define the 3 rock types: igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic

12 Igneous Rocks Are Separated into Two Main Categories INTRUSIVE EXTRUSIVE

13 Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks are rocks that are formed from the crystallization of magma. Igneous rocks are rocks that are formed from the crystallization of magma. Heat and melting MagmaCooling and crystallization Igneous Rocks

14 Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks may be made of rock fragments—sediments— or by chemical reactions. The classification of sediments is shown below.

15 Metamorphic Rocks Are rocks formed from an increase in pressure and temperature deep within the lithosphere. Are rocks formed from an increase in pressure and temperature deep within the lithosphere.

16 Clastic rocks–made of cemented sediments—are classified by their grain sizes.

17 Non-clastic rocks form by chemical precipitation (settling out from a solution.) Limestone is made from calcite, chert from quartz, and halite is rock salt.

18 Biologic sedimentary rocks come from the remains of organic matter. The most important of these is coal. Anthracite coal results from the greatest pressure and releases the most energy when burned. Other varieties are bituminous and lignite. “Petrified” (permineralized) wood is another organic rock.

19 More about sedimentary rocks Shale is the most common sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks cover about three- quarters of the land surface

20 Sedimentary Rocks Rocks formed from lithification. Rocks formed from lithification.

21 lithification transformation of sediments into rock through compaction and cementation

22 Compaction the process in which pressure squeezed air and water out and pushes fragments together the process in which pressure squeezed air and water out and pushes fragments together pressure comes from rock layers above pressure comes from rock layers above

23 Cementation the process in which water and minerals combine to from cement that holds sediment together. the process in which water and minerals combine to from cement that holds sediment together.

24 Three Types of Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Evaporites Sedimentary Rocks Evaporites Sedimentary Rocks Organic Sedimentary Rocks Organic Sedimentary Rocks organic - once living

25 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Formed from minerals that were once dissolved in water Formed from minerals that were once dissolved in water

26 Evaporites Formed when a change in temperature caused water to be evaporated Formed when a change in temperature caused water to be evaporated Examples: Gypsum and Halite Examples: Gypsum and Halite HALITE GYPSUM

27 Organic Sedimentary Rock formed from the remains of living things formed from the remains of living things FOSSILIFOROUS LIMESTONE

28 Metamorphic Rocks Are rocks formed from an increase in pressure and temperature deep within the lithosphere. Are rocks formed from an increase in pressure and temperature deep within the lithosphere.

29 Metamorphic rocks are classified by how they are formed. How are metamorphic rocks classified?

30 Three Types of Metamorphic Rocks Contact Metamorphism Contact Metamorphism – occurs when molten rocks, such as those in an igneous intrusion, come in contact with solid rock

31 Regional Metamorphism are produced when high temperature and pressure affect large regions of Earth’s crust. are produced when high temperature and pressure affect large regions of Earth’s crust. the grade of regional metamorphism reflects the intensity of temperature and pressure the grade of regional metamorphism reflects the intensity of temperature and pressure classified as low grade, intermediate grade, and high grade. classified as low grade, intermediate grade, and high grade.

32 Metamorphic Rocks Are Classified By Their Texture MARBLE IS NONFOLIATED GNIESS IS FOLIATED

33 Nonfoliated composed mainly of minerals that form with blocky crystal shapes. composed mainly of minerals that form with blocky crystal shapes. – Quartzite and marble are two common examples of nonfoliated rocks.

34 Foliated metamorphic rocks are characterized by bands of minerals metamorphic rocks are characterized by bands of minerals high pressure during metamorphism causes minerals with flat or needlelike crystals to form with their long axes perpendicular to the pressure high pressure during metamorphism causes minerals with flat or needlelike crystals to form with their long axes perpendicular to the pressure

35 Chemical Change When hot fluids, water or magma, migrate in and out of the rock during metamorphism the original composition of the rock can change. When hot fluids, water or magma, migrate in and out of the rock during metamorphism the original composition of the rock can change. Minerals melt into a liquid state then recombine with other elements to create new minerals. Minerals melt into a liquid state then recombine with other elements to create new minerals.

36 Mineral Changes During metamorphism, the minerals in a rock change into new minerals that are stable under the new temperature and pressure conditions. During metamorphism, the minerals in a rock change into new minerals that are stable under the new temperature and pressure conditions.

37 Locations, types, and ages of the bedrocks are represented in a geologic map


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