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Identifying Rocks Sedimentary rocks. Rocks are partly identified by origin: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic.

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Presentation on theme: "Identifying Rocks Sedimentary rocks. Rocks are partly identified by origin: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Identifying Rocks Sedimentary rocks

2 Rocks are partly identified by origin: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic

3 Sedimentary Rocks

4 Wow! Seventy percent of all the rocks on earth are sedimentary rocks.

5 How are sedimentary rocks formed? Several Steps Erosion Deposition Compaction Cementation



8 Erosion/Weathering Occurs when running water or wind loosens and carries away fragments of rocks.

9 Erosion Erosion is the breakdown of the continents and the land around you.




13 Erosion is destructive!!! What causes erosion? Wind, water, heat, cold, rain, waves, grinding ice

14 Boulders become sand. Mountains are rained on and become hills. The pieces of the mountain become smaller pieces and go down the sides of hills. Weathering and erosion always happen in a downhill direction.

15 Fire Island Erosion


17 Erosion


19 2. Deposition When the sediments settle out of the wind or water. The Sediment will sink to bottom of lake or ocean

20 The sediments are deposited into a body of water like you are depositing money in a bank



23 Deposition

24 Compaction It is a process Thick layers of sediment build up Layers become heavy and press down on layers beneath Sediments are pressed together

25 Compaction


27 Compaction Diagram



30 3. Cementation Word connection- cement – First Minerals in rock dissolve – Next, cement seeps into spaces between particles – Then, dissolved minerals crystallize and GLUE the particles together

31 See the cement? See the large pebbles?


33 Compaction and Cementation These processes cause loose sediments to turn into rocks This takes millions of years!!!!


35 grains of different sizes settle under the action of gravity. adding the pressure causes compaction (center). Cementation (right) is one of the final processes that turns sediment into rock.

36 Types of Sedimentary Rocks Clastic- formed by rock fragments squeezed together

37 Conglomerate

38 Conglomerate is a sedimentary rocksedimentary rock contains rounded particles/pebbles that are cemented together Has a large range of particle sizes

39 Organic made from living things (coral, clams, oysters, snails, shells, skeletons, leaves) – Coal – Limestone(chalk)

40 Organic Sedimentary Rock with Fossils


42 Plant fossils


44 Chemical when minerals dissolve in a solution and crystallize Calcite to limestone Halite to mineral salt gypsum


46 In September, 2012, NASA's Mars rover Curiosity discovered an outcrop of conglomerate exposed on the surface of Mars

47 Martian Conglomerate: This image was acquired by NASA's Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. It shows an outcrop of conglomerate and some pebble-size weathering debris. The round pebbles are too large to have been moved and shaped by wind, thus they had to have been transported a significant distance by water. This photo from September 2012 was the strongest evidence of the existence of water on Mars that had been obtained at that time.

48 Stop








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