Presentation on theme: "Portugal and Spain Iberian Peninsula Sessions 1 and 2 Civilization exists by geologic consent, subject to change without notice. Will Durant University."— Presentation transcript:
Portugal and Spain Iberian Peninsula Sessions 1 and 2 Civilization exists by geologic consent, subject to change without notice. Will Durant University of Texas, Life Long Learning SAGE: Winter 2011 Vagabonds tramping geology in Iberia, France, UK, & Germany Don Beaumont, Sandi Phillips, & Rocky Romero
Portugal and Spain Iberian Peninsula Sessions 1 and 2 Civilization exists by geologic consent, subject to change without notice. Will Durant Senior University Georgetown Winter 2011 Vagabonds tramping geology Don Beaumont, Sandi Phillips, & Rocky Romero
Geology in the News Humans left Africa earlier than once thought Austin American Statesman, January 28, ,000 years ago to eastern Arabia rather than 100,000 years ago into Palestine Suggests new route directly from East Africa to Arabia rather than up the Nile River and then through the Sinai. It might have been like this
Now to BP and Arctic Russia
BP to spend billions exploring for oil & gas in the Kara Sea of Arctic Russia
Kara Sea North Sea Now to Western Europe and Iberia
Countries of Western Europe Iberia Topographic Provinces
Topographic Provinces Mountains, Plateaus, and River Low Lands Geologic Map of Western Europe Colors relate provinces of the same age
Geologic Map Colors show rocks of different: 1. ages 2. types What are the earth’s rock types?
ology_europe&xmin=-35.79&xmax=55.75&ymin=27.96&ymax=74.57 Three Types of Rocks make up the Earth’s Crust 1. Sedimentary Rocks 2. Metamorphic Rocks 3. Igneous Rocks Portugal and Spain have all three rock types in a very complex pattern Let’s look at sedimentary rocks
Rocks: Types & Cycles Sedimentary Rocks Burial: heat pressure Common Sedimentary Rock Types Sediments
Common Sedimentary Rock Types Limestones = sea shells & shell debris Sandstones = sand Shales = clay (mud) Next: Metamorphic Rocks Most sedimentary rocks are formed: 1. in the oceans 2. at the edge of the continents
Rocks: Classes & Cycles Sediments to Sedimentary Rocks to Metamorphic Rocks Partial Melting Common Metamorphic Rocks
Common Metamorphic Rocks Limestone: partially melted = m mm marble Sandstone: partially melted = q qq quartzite Shale: partial melting = == = slate Shale & Sand partial melting = s ss schist = gneiss Finally, igneous rocks
Rocks: Classes & Cycles Sedimentary Rocks to Metamorphic Rocks to Igneous Rocks At the surface molten Lava At depth molten Magmas Complete Melting
Igneous Activity Volcanic : At or near the surface of the earth Plutonic : Well below the surface of the earth (visible by deep erosion) Now, at quick look at volcanic igneous rocks
From melted oceanic crust or shales Igneous Rocks Volcanoes Dark color Heavy No “grains” Light color Medium weight No “grains” From melted continental Crust or sandstone & shale Basalt Rhyolite Next: the Plutonic Igneous rocks
Plutonic (deeply buried) Igneous Rocks Mantle rock Original rock below the earth’s crust Original Continental Crust or melted sandstone & shale Gabbro Granite Putting it all together; our solid earth
The Earth’s Rocky Crust Continental Granite: 20 to 50 miles thick Oceanic Basalt 5 miles thick The Solid Earth The Rocky Igneous Crust 5 to 50 miles thick
The Solid Earth Continental Granite Oceanic Basalt The Mantle Composed of rock called gabbro Where are sedimentary rocks created?
Continent being Destroyed by Weathering & Erosion Rivers move the Continental Debris to the Continental Margins Where it is accumulates as layers of sediments Sediments (sands, muds, & shells) are buried and squeezed into Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Where are they formed? Modern sediments of Iberia
Where & how are sedimentary rocks converted to metamorphic rocks? Modern sediments of Iberia
Rivers carry erosional debris to the ocean at the continental margins Ocean But first a word about the earth’s crust Oceanic Crust: Under all of the deep seas About 5 miles thick Continental Crust: Comprises all continents About 20 to 50 miles thick Where & how are sedimentary rocks converted to metamorphic rocks?
Where & how are sedimentary rocks converted to metamorphic rocks? Sediments in ocean at the margin of the continent Where have sedimentary rocks in North America been converted to metamorphic rocks? Building a new mountain range by crushing & melting the sedimentary rocks creating metamorphic rocks
Where are Metamorphic & Igneous Rocks Made? D ebris along continental margins is crushed and melted when crustal plates collide forming Metamorphic and Igneous Rocks Note: Iberia has Appalachian age mountains! How do we explain this?
Where and how did this happen? Appalachian age mountains Alpine (“recent”) age mountains
The Crushing and Melting when Africa collided with North America to produce Metamorphic & Igneous Rocks of the Appalachian Mountains On a collision course Iberia Before we continue with the history of Appalachia and Iberia: Geologic Time
Geologic Time: The Last 570 Million Years Last slide North America & Africa (Iberia, etc) on a collision course Collision!! Mountains in Appalachia, Iberia, France, Scotland & Norway
The Crushing and Melting when Africa collided with North America creating Metamorphic & Igneous rocks in Appalachia, Iberia, France, Scotland & Norway Crunch!!!! Mountain ranges created by collision of earth plates
Crust broken into PLATES Plates move (drift) slowly colliding & shearing each other North American Plate African Plate Eurasian Plate Plate motion: Continental Drift
Continental (plate) Drift Appalachian Mountains South America, Florida, Africa & SW Europe North America & NW Europe Super continent Pangaea Focusing on western Europe
Continental (plate) Drift Iberia, France & Germany European “Appalachians” Modern World Mountain Ranges From Blakey
Modern World Mountain Ranges From Blakey North Atlantic: Close Up
Modern World Mountain Ranges (blue) From Blakey Ouachita Appalachian France & Germany Iberia Back to Iberia: The Geologic Map
Colors show rocks of different: 1. ages 2. types Iberia: The Geologic Map
Colors show rocks of different: 1. ages 2. types Weathering & Erosion of different rocks produces different topographies & soils Different topographies & soils determine where humans live and flourish Iberia: The Geologic Map This map shows the present day rock surface produced by the weathering & erosion of the complex continental crust of Iberia Why is this important?
Weathering & Erosion Topography and Soils
Geologic Map Rock Types at the surface Natural Resources Map Farming & Mining (Ores) Proposition: Rocks of different types weather & erode producing different soils that determine type of agriculture Weathering and Erosion also exposes different ores at or near the surface Why are ore occurrences important? Human history has been shaped by the possession of ore deposits Beaumont, Univ Penn SPP paper 203, 2010 The mineral resources of Iberia
Topographic Map Iberia Weathering and Erosion creates topography that determines: where people live and what they do to support themselves
Topographic Map Iberia Weathering and Erosion creates topography that determines: where people live and what they do to support themselves Weathering and Erosion also exposes different ores at or near the surface