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Portugal and Spain Iberian Peninsula Sessions 1 and 2 Civilization exists by geologic consent, subject to change without notice. Will Durant University.

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Presentation on theme: "Portugal and Spain Iberian Peninsula Sessions 1 and 2 Civilization exists by geologic consent, subject to change without notice. Will Durant University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Portugal and Spain Iberian Peninsula Sessions 1 and 2 Civilization exists by geologic consent, subject to change without notice. Will Durant University of Texas, Life Long Learning SAGE: Winter 2011 Vagabonds tramping geology in Iberia, France, UK, & Germany Don Beaumont, Sandi Phillips, & Rocky Romero

2 Portugal and Spain Iberian Peninsula Sessions 1 and 2 Civilization exists by geologic consent, subject to change without notice. Will Durant Senior University Georgetown Winter 2011 Vagabonds tramping geology Don Beaumont, Sandi Phillips, & Rocky Romero

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4 Geology in the News Humans left Africa earlier than once thought Austin American Statesman, January 28, ,000 years ago to eastern Arabia rather than 100,000 years ago into Palestine Suggests new route directly from East Africa to Arabia rather than up the Nile River and then through the Sinai. It might have been like this

5 Now to BP and Arctic Russia

6 BP to spend billions exploring for oil & gas in the Kara Sea of Arctic Russia

7 Kara Sea North Sea Now to Western Europe and Iberia

8 Countries of Western Europe Iberia Topographic Provinces

9 Topographic Provinces Mountains, Plateaus, and River Low Lands Geologic Map of Western Europe Colors relate provinces of the same age

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11 Geologic Map Colors show rocks of different: 1. ages 2. types What are the earth’s rock types?

12 ology_europe&xmin=-35.79&xmax=55.75&ymin=27.96&ymax=74.57 Three Types of Rocks make up the Earth’s Crust 1. Sedimentary Rocks 2. Metamorphic Rocks 3. Igneous Rocks Portugal and Spain have all three rock types in a very complex pattern Let’s look at sedimentary rocks

13 Rocks: Types & Cycles Sedimentary Rocks Burial: heat pressure Common Sedimentary Rock Types Sediments

14 Common Sedimentary Rock Types Limestones = sea shells & shell debris Sandstones = sand Shales = clay (mud) Next: Metamorphic Rocks Most sedimentary rocks are formed: 1. in the oceans 2. at the edge of the continents

15 Rocks: Classes & Cycles Sediments to Sedimentary Rocks to Metamorphic Rocks Partial Melting Common Metamorphic Rocks

16 Common Metamorphic Rocks Limestone: partially melted = m mm marble Sandstone: partially melted = q qq quartzite Shale: partial melting = == = slate Shale & Sand partial melting = s ss schist = gneiss Finally, igneous rocks

17 Rocks: Classes & Cycles Sedimentary Rocks to Metamorphic Rocks to Igneous Rocks At the surface molten Lava At depth molten Magmas Complete Melting

18 Igneous Activity Volcanic : At or near the surface of the earth Plutonic : Well below the surface of the earth (visible by deep erosion) Now, at quick look at volcanic igneous rocks

19 From melted oceanic crust or shales Igneous Rocks Volcanoes Dark color Heavy No “grains” Light color Medium weight No “grains” From melted continental Crust or sandstone & shale Basalt Rhyolite Next: the Plutonic Igneous rocks

20 Plutonic (deeply buried) Igneous Rocks Mantle rock Original rock below the earth’s crust Original Continental Crust or melted sandstone & shale Gabbro Granite Putting it all together; our solid earth

21 The Earth’s Rocky Crust Continental Granite: 20 to 50 miles thick Oceanic Basalt 5 miles thick The Solid Earth The Rocky Igneous Crust 5 to 50 miles thick

22 The Solid Earth Continental Granite Oceanic Basalt The Mantle Composed of rock called gabbro Where are sedimentary rocks created?

23 Continent being Destroyed by Weathering & Erosion Rivers move the Continental Debris to the Continental Margins Where it is accumulates as layers of sediments Sediments (sands, muds, & shells) are buried and squeezed into Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Where are they formed? Modern sediments of Iberia

24 Where & how are sedimentary rocks converted to metamorphic rocks? Modern sediments of Iberia

25 Rivers carry erosional debris to the ocean at the continental margins Ocean But first a word about the earth’s crust Oceanic Crust: Under all of the deep seas About 5 miles thick Continental Crust: Comprises all continents About 20 to 50 miles thick Where & how are sedimentary rocks converted to metamorphic rocks?

26 Where & how are sedimentary rocks converted to metamorphic rocks? Sediments in ocean at the margin of the continent Where have sedimentary rocks in North America been converted to metamorphic rocks? Building a new mountain range by crushing & melting the sedimentary rocks creating metamorphic rocks

27 Where are Metamorphic & Igneous Rocks Made? D ebris along continental margins is crushed and melted when crustal plates collide forming Metamorphic and Igneous Rocks Note: Iberia has Appalachian age mountains! How do we explain this?

28 Where and how did this happen? Appalachian age mountains Alpine (“recent”) age mountains

29 The Crushing and Melting when Africa collided with North America to produce Metamorphic & Igneous Rocks of the Appalachian Mountains On a collision course Iberia Before we continue with the history of Appalachia and Iberia: Geologic Time

30 Geologic Time: The Last 570 Million Years Last slide North America & Africa (Iberia, etc) on a collision course Collision!! Mountains in Appalachia, Iberia, France, Scotland & Norway

31 The Crushing and Melting when Africa collided with North America creating Metamorphic & Igneous rocks in Appalachia, Iberia, France, Scotland & Norway Crunch!!!! Mountain ranges created by collision of earth plates

32 Crust broken into PLATES Plates move (drift) slowly colliding & shearing each other North American Plate African Plate Eurasian Plate Plate motion: Continental Drift

33 Continental (plate) Drift Appalachian Mountains South America, Florida, Africa & SW Europe North America & NW Europe Super continent Pangaea Focusing on western Europe

34 Continental (plate) Drift Iberia, France & Germany European “Appalachians” Modern World Mountain Ranges From Blakey

35 Modern World Mountain Ranges From Blakey North Atlantic: Close Up

36 Modern World Mountain Ranges (blue) From Blakey Ouachita Appalachian France & Germany Iberia Back to Iberia: The Geologic Map

37 Colors show rocks of different: 1. ages 2. types Iberia: The Geologic Map

38 Colors show rocks of different: 1. ages 2. types Weathering & Erosion of different rocks produces different topographies & soils Different topographies & soils determine where humans live and flourish Iberia: The Geologic Map This map shows the present day rock surface produced by the weathering & erosion of the complex continental crust of Iberia Why is this important?

39 Weathering & Erosion Topography and Soils

40 Geologic Map Rock Types at the surface Natural Resources Map Farming & Mining (Ores) Proposition: Rocks of different types weather & erode producing different soils that determine type of agriculture Weathering and Erosion also exposes different ores at or near the surface Why are ore occurrences important? Human history has been shaped by the possession of ore deposits Beaumont, Univ Penn SPP paper 203, 2010 The mineral resources of Iberia

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43 Topographic Map Iberia Weathering and Erosion creates topography that determines: where people live and what they do to support themselves

44 Topographic Map Iberia Weathering and Erosion creates topography that determines: where people live and what they do to support themselves Weathering and Erosion also exposes different ores at or near the surface

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