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Do You Remebmer? Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6. What Are Sediments? ______________________ In order of decreasing size.

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Presentation on theme: "Do You Remebmer? Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6. What Are Sediments? ______________________ In order of decreasing size."— Presentation transcript:

1 Do You Remebmer? Sedimentary Rocks Chapter 6

2 What Are Sediments? ______________________ In order of decreasing size

3 Sources of Sediments 1. From ________ & ________ 2. From ______ precipitation

4 What Happens to Sediments 1. ____________ by: –Water. –Ice. –Wind. –Gravity. Most sediment is buried and converted to sedimentary rock.

5 2. _________ by Rivers Wind Glaciers Other water When the transportation vector has run out of energy, the sediments are deposited (dropped). What Happens to Sediments

6 ____ Sorting- Transporting & Depositing HeadwatersMouth Grade = change in elevation/length

7 Principle of _____ __________ Most sedimentary layers of rock are deposited in a horizontal position, with older rocks laid down first

8 _________ Sediment becomes sedimentary rock through ________, which involves: _________ Recrystallization (of carbonate sediment) Ex: sand Remember that SiO 2 is released into groundwater from the chemical weathering of quartz and feldspars.

9 3 Classes of Sedimentary Rock _______ - fragments of rock debris produced by physical weathering. Ex. Sand & clay. _______- sediment precipitates from solution in water. Ex. Calcium carbonate & salt. _______ - sediment composed of the fossilized remains. Ex. Coal, oil, & natural gas.

10 Gravel Clastic Rocks If rounded clasts = ____________ If angular clasts = __________

11 Sand Clastic Rocks Different Sandstones based on dominate grains quartz grains = ________ ____________ feldspar grains = _______ sand-sized rock fragment grains = __________

12 Clay Clastic Rocks Grains less than 1/256 mm (smooth) _____ (if fissile – splits) ________ (if massive) also called Claystone

13 Chemical ________ From the evaporation of water (usually seawater). Rock salt - composed of halite (NaCl). Rock gypsum - composed of gypsum (CaSO4.2H20) Travertine - composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and therefore, also technically a carbonate rock

14 Chemical __________ Formed through both chemical & biochemical processes. Include the limestones (many types) Two minerals are dominant: –Calcite (CaCO3) –Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2)

15 Chemical ___________ Dominated by silica (SiO2). From diatoms, radiolarians, or sponges. Diatomite - looks like chalk, but doesn’t fizz in acid. Made of diatoms. Also referred to as Diatomaceous Earth. Chert - Massive and hard, microcrystalline quartz. May be dark or light in color. Often replaces limestone. Does not fizz in acid.

16 Biogenic (______) Sedimentary Rocks Coals organic matter (plants). Increasing depth of burial (temperature and pressure): –Peat (porous, brownish plant fragments) –Lignite (crumbly and black) –Bituminous (dull to shiny and black; sooty; layers may be visible) –Anthracite (extremely shiny and black; low density; not sooty

17 ___________ from Sediments Large enough to be recognized. Ex.- haystack rock, sand dunes, delicate arch, balanced rock

18 ___________ Environments Aluvial Fan Braided stream Lakes Rivers Levees Swamps Deserts Glacial

19 ________ Environments Seas & oceans Continental shelf Continental slope and rise (deep sea fans) Abyssal plain Reefs

20 ____________ Environments between the land and the sea.

21 How can sedimentary rock help us learn about the past? What can sedimentary rock teach us about the past?

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