2Contents Folding and Fold Mountains Faulting and its associated LandformsVolcanism and the Earth’s CrustOcean Ridges, Ocean Trenches and Island ArcsEarthquakes
3Folding and Fold Mountains All major mountain chains are ‘fold-belts’ or called ‘orogenic belts’
4Features and Characteristics of Fold Mountain Areas There are parallel belts of fold mountains separated by intermountain plateau where sedimentary strata are much less intensely folded.They are mainly composed of thickness of sedimentary rock strata. But when the core of fold mts. has been exposed, igneous and metamorphic rocks are also found.Young fold mts. Zones represent lines of weakness of the earth’s crust and most of the world’s recently active volacnoes lie and where the greater majority of earthqaukes originate.The rock strata have been compressed into various kinds of folded structure.
5Geometrical Varieties of Folds Three geometrical varieties of folds can be distinguished, anticlines, synclines and monoclines.
7Types of foldingThe profile of a fold is its form as seen in a plane perpendicular to the axis.Simple / Symmetrical FoldTwo limbs dip symmetrically as similar anglesAsymmetrical FoldOne limb dips more steeply than the other.Over Fold / Overturned FoldRecumbent FoldThe axial plane is roughly horizontalOverthrust FoldThe sheet of rocks that has moved forward along the thrust plane.Anticlinorium & SynclinoriumA complex of folds of different orders
9Formation of Fold Mountains According to the plate tectonic theory, fold mt originates where two plates of crust converge.The full development of an orogenic belt requires collision between plates.
10Formation of Fold Mountains The surface is being actively eroded supplying a large amount of sediments.An accumulation of great depths of sediments in a geosyncline (large depression) under an ocean.Two plates move toward each other producing a great compressional force.The sedimentary rocks are folded upFold mountains are formedMagma of the mantle may also flow out to the earth’s surface forming volcanoes in this process.Faulting is very common.Eg. Himalayas (boundary between Eurasian plate and the Australian Plate)
17Faulting and its associated landforms Fault is a fracture of dislocation in the earth’s crust along which there has been displacement of the rocks strata.The movement of the rocks on a fault may have been in any direction, vertical, or horizontal or some combination of these.
19Fault typesFaults may be divided into several categories in relation to the movements that have taken place on them.
20Normal Fault It is caused by tension The hanging wall is displaced downwards relative to those against the footwall along the fault plane.‘Downthrow’ and ‘upthrow’ for the two sides are purely relative.Feature: Horsts (block mountain) and Graben
21Reverse Fault / Thrust Fault It is caused by comressionThe hanging wall is upthrow the footwall along the fault plane.Feature: Horsts and Graben
22Tear Fault / Wrench Fault It is called transcurrent or strike-slip faults.It is formed where the movement was dominantly horizontal.
23Block Mountain and Rift Valley Regions which have been divided by faulting into relatively elevated or depressed blocks are said to be block faulted.The upstanding fault blocks may be small plateaux or long ridge-like block mountains or horsts.A long fault trough is known as rift valley.Example: East African Rift Valley.
25Volcanism and the Earth’s Crust Vulcanicity is the process by which matter is transferred from the earth’s interior and erupted on to its surface.Volcanoes eruption are undoubtedly one of the greatest natural hazards to life on this planet.Below the crust, despite the high temperatures at depth, the material is usually solid because of the great pressure exerted by the superior masses of rock.At times, a local increase of heat or/and reduction in pressure, the Basal layers of the crustal SIMA to become magma.Magma may be able to rise to the surface of the earth through conveniently placed fissures and pipes or vents.All such activities are known as vulcanicity.There are two types of vulcanicity: Intrusive and Extrusive vulcanicity
26Intrusive Forms of Vulcanicity The results of the forcing into the earth’s crust of magma depend onDegree of fluidityThe character of the planes of weakness, such as joints and faults….
27Intrusive Forms of Vulcanicity Dykes:These are formed when magma has risen through near-vertical fissures and solidifying to form ‘walls’ of rock cutting across the bedding planes of parent rock.Sills:Horizontal sheets of rock solidify from magma which has been ejected between bedding planes.Laccoliths:These features are produced where tongue-like lateral intrusions of viscous magma have forced the overlying strata into a dome.Batholiths:Large masses of rock occur in the heart of mountain range.Large scale intrusion in the great depth and magma cooled slowly to form large-crystalled rocks such as granite.Intrusive rocks can be classified into Hypabyssal (dykes, sills and laccoliths) and Plutonic (Batholiths).
28Extrusive Forms of Vulcanicity A volcano consists of vent or opening at the surface of the crust through which material is forced in eruption.This may accumulate around the vent to form a hill, or it may flow widely over the country rock as an extensive level sheet.Three types of extrusive materials
29Extrusive materials Gases: Solid: Include gaseous compounds of sulphur and hydrogen with carbon dioxide.Stream is the most important factor affecting the eruption.Solid:Pyroclastic Debris / Pyroclasts / TephraInclude:Country rocksFiner materials: (lapilli, dust, ash)Volcanic bombs: lava are thrown into the air solidify before reaching ground.
30Extrusive materials Liquid: Lava Acid lava: Basic lava The form of a volcanic cone and the nature of eruption depend on a large extent upon the nature of lava.Acid lava:High silica (SiO2) content, high melting-point, viscous, solidify rapidly and flowing very slow.It builds high, steep-sided cones.They may solidify in the vent and cause recurrent explosive eruption.Basic lavaRelatively poor SiO2 content, low melting point and flows faster, and produces much flatter cone / shield cone.Its eruption is quiet.
32Three Types of Volcano They are classified by eruption type Explosive eruptionCinder cones and composite conesQuiet eruption / Fissures eruptionShield Cones and lava plateaux
33Cinder Cones They are the smallest volcanoes They are formed by Pyroclastic Debris, tephra and volcanic ashesCinder cones rarely grow to more than 150 to 300m in height.
34Basic Lava Cones / Shield Cones They are built by basic lava.Characteristics of basic lava (Basalt)Dark Colour with Low content of SiO2Low viscosity, Low melting-point and fast flowing.Volcanoes with gentle slope (4o to 5o)Eg. Hawaiian Islands
35Acid Lava ConesLight colour and viscous acid lava flows very slow for high content of SiO2.It produces a steep dome.
36Volcanic Plug When the vent of lava cone was solidified by acid lava. When the country rocks were removed, the solidified vent is called volcanic plug.
38Composite VolcanoesMost of the world’s great volcanoes are composite cones.They are built pf layers of cinder and ash alternating with layers of lava.Many composite volcanoes lie in a great belt, the circum-Pacific ring (ring of fire) and Mediterranean group of volcanoes.The eruption of large composite volcanoes is accompanied by explosive issue of steam, cinders, bombs, ash and by lava flows.The crater may change form rapidly.Example: Fujiyama in Japan.
40CalderasVolcanic explosive so violent as to destroy the entire central portion of the volcano.There are remain only a great depression, a caldera.Example:Krakatoa (in Indonesia), exploded in 1883, leaving a great caldera.75cubic km of rock disappeared during the explosion.Great tsunamis appeared and kills thousands of people of Java and Sumatra.
43Active, Dormant and Extinct Volcanoes Active Volcanoes:Eruption periodically in historic times.Dormant Volcanoes:Renewal of eruption activity is possible.Eg. Vesuvius had been dormant so long before its eruption of AD 79 that it was thought to be extinct.Extinct Volcanoes:They were formed in long-past geological times and with no sign of any volcanic activity.
45Distribution of Volcanoes There are many known active volcanoes all over the world. 80 active and ten calderas locates here.Pacific Ring of Fire2/3 world’s volcanoes occur here.The chain of volcanoes near 3200 kmAmerica:St. Helens is very active in recent years.Highest peaks in S. AmericaAconcagua (7021m), Guayatiri (6060m)
46Distribution of Volcanoes Africa:They are found along the East Africa Rift Valley.Mount Kenya (5195m), Kilimanjaro (5889m)Asia and Europe:Alpine-Himalayan belt which forms the most tectonic features (folding, faulting, volcanoes…..)Others:Volcanic activity is widespread in Iceland.Several Atlantic islands, which have many eruption .
48Ocean RidgesThey connect through all the oceans to form a worldwide feature nearly km long.They are all composed of basaltic lava.They are formed by fissure eruptions with a fairly uniform rate of lava emission.Iceland is built astride the Mid-Atlantic Ridge system.
50Ocean TrenchesThe deepest parts of the oceans are elongated troughs descending to depths of over metres.Sediments accumulating on the trench floors.Nearly all the trenches occur around the margins of the Pacific Ocean and arc of volcanic islands is commonly present on the continental side of the trenches.
51Island ArcsIsland arcs are mostly found around western margin of the Pacific Ocean and in the northeast of the Indian Ocean.They formed on the subduction zone.
53Island Arc - JapanJapan is the largest area of land formed by island arc.MT. Fuji reaches nearly 4000m, and several other peaks on Honshu top 3000m.Honshu is largely a pile of basalt and andesite lying between the Japan Trench and the Sea of Japan.It seems that the subducted ocean-floor becomes mobilized as magma when it reaches 120km depth.When the descending plate reaches over 100km in depth partial melting takes place, magma rises to form a pile of volcanic rocks and the island arc begins to rise / form.
56Contents Introduction Seismic Waves Distribution Earthquake and Plate TectonicEffects of Earthquake
57IntroductionEarthquakes - natural vibrations within the earth’s crust.Some of these are violent and are responsible for large scale death and destruction.Most earthquakes are twoo small to be felt by man and only be detected by seismographs.
58Seismic WavesThe investigation of earthquakes and the transmission of earthquake waves is known as seismology.Earthquake generates elastic vibrations or ‘waves’
59Four kinds of seismic waves Primary Waves (P waves)Secondary Waves (S waves)Love waves (L waves)Rayleigh waves
60P and S waves P waves S-waves The P-waves and S-waves are body waves. It is also called compressional waves which consists of longitudinal vibrations.These waves propagate very rapidly through both solids and liquids and are usually the first indication that an earthquake has occurred.The speed of P-wavesCrust: 5.5 km/s; Upper mantle: 8 km/s; Lower mantle: 13.5 km/sS-wavesIt is also called Shear waves which are transverse vibrations with an movement at right angles to their path.The speed of S-waves is 60% of P-waves.It cannot propagate through the liquid (core)The P-waves and S-waves are body waves.
62L-waves and R-waves L-waves: R-waves: It is also called Love waves which travel around the periphery the earth.R-waves:It is also Rayleigh waves which travel similar to wind-driven ocean waves.L-waves and R-waves are surface waves.P-waves is the fastest and L-waves are the slowest, but L-waves have the greatest amplitude and are those that do the most damage.
63DistributionIt is very similar with the distribution of volcanoes.
64Distribution 80% originate in the ‘Circum-Pacific Ring of Fire’. 15% in the Mediterranean and Trans-Asiatic zone.5% in other parts of the world.
65Formation Refers to the theory of plate tectonic.
66Effects of Earthquake Shattered buildings Displaced roads and railways Collapsed bridgesGreat cracks in groundChanges in sea levelTsunamisFire and floodFamines and diseaseLoss of life