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The Fire Within: Plate Tectonics & Volcanism Across the Solar System By the Lunar and Planetary Institute For Use In Teacher Workshops USGS Photo by B.

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Presentation on theme: "The Fire Within: Plate Tectonics & Volcanism Across the Solar System By the Lunar and Planetary Institute For Use In Teacher Workshops USGS Photo by B."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Fire Within: Plate Tectonics & Volcanism Across the Solar System By the Lunar and Planetary Institute For Use In Teacher Workshops USGS Photo by B. Chouet

2 What’s a Rock? What are the Main Rock Types? How Do They Form? How Do You Tell One from Another?

3 Igneous All igneous rocks All igneous rocks cool and crystallize from magma or lava cool and crystallize from magma or lava or consolidate from pyroclastic materials or consolidate from pyroclastic materials Magma is molten material below the surface Magma is molten material below the surface Lava is molten material on the surface Lava is molten material on the surface Pyroclastic materials are particles such as volcanic ash Pyroclastic materials are particles such as volcanic ash

4 Metamorphic Changes in minerals, texture, and/or chemical composition of a rock that result from changes in temperature and pressure … like burial, contact with hot stuff, extreme crunching … Changes in minerals, texture, and/or chemical composition of a rock that result from changes in temperature and pressure … like burial, contact with hot stuff, extreme crunching … No melting! No melting! Photo by J.P. Lockwood. Figure 24-B, U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1595.Bulletin 1595

5 Clastic Sedimentary Rocks Sediment particles (skeletal, rock fragment, mineral, plant particles) derived from erosion (breakdown / transport) of rock that are lithified (cemented or compacted) Carbonate / Other Sedimentary Rocks Chemical precipitates (halite) or biologically - produced (organic) material (shell fragments). In- situ.Sedimentary Images from http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/parks/rxmin/rock2.htmlhttp://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/parks/rxmin/rock2.html

6 What is the Rock Cycle?

7 From USGS at http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/nyc/images/fig6.jpg http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/nyc/images/fig6.jpg

8 Igneous Part of the Rock Cycle From USGS at http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/nyc/images/fig6.jpg http://3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/nyc/images/fig6.jpg

9 Igneous Rocks All igneous rocks All igneous rocks cool and crystallize from magma or lava cool and crystallize from magma or lava or consolidate from pyroclastic materials or consolidate from pyroclastic materials Magma is molten material below the surface Magma is molten material below the surface Lava is molten material on the surface Lava is molten material on the surface Pyroclastic materials are particles such as volcanic ash Pyroclastic materials are particles such as volcanic ash

10 Identifying Igneous Rocks Step 1. Step 1. Is it an igneous rock? Interlocking randomly oriented crystals? Published as figure 14 in U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin 1595. 1987 Bulletin 1595Bulletin 1595

11 Identifying Igneous Rocks Extrusive or volcanic rocks Extrusive or volcanic rocks form at the surface from lava or pyroclastic materials form at the surface from lava or pyroclastic materials Intrusive or plutonic rocks Intrusive or plutonic rocks form from magma in the crust form from magma in the crust

12 Identifying Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks have 4 textures Igneous rocks have 4 textures determined by the cooling rate of magma or lava determined by the cooling rate of magma or lava Texture Texture size, shape and arrangement of crystals in a rock size, shape and arrangement of crystals in a rock

13 4 Cooling-Rate Textures Phaneritic – Coarse Grained (Intrusive) Phaneritic – Coarse Grained (Intrusive) visible grains, cooled slowly visible grains, cooled slowly Aphanitic – Fine Grained (Extrusive) Aphanitic – Fine Grained (Extrusive) with grains too small to see, cooled quickly with grains too small to see, cooled quickly Porphyritic – (Extrusive) Porphyritic – (Extrusive) with larger grains surrounded by a finer- grained groundmass with larger grains surrounded by a finer- grained groundmass cooled slowly first, then more quickly cooled slowly first, then more quickly Glassy Glassy with no grains with no grains cooled too quickly for minerals to grow cooled too quickly for minerals to grow

14 Igneous Rock Textures Also vesicular texture, with holes (vesicles) Also vesicular texture, with holes (vesicles) indicates the rock formed as water vapor and other gases became trapped during cooling of lava indicates the rock formed as water vapor and other gases became trapped during cooling of lava Pyroclastic or fragmental texture Pyroclastic or fragmental texture containing fragments formed by consolidation of volcanic ash or other pyroclastic material containing fragments formed by consolidation of volcanic ash or other pyroclastic material

15 Identifying Igneous Rocks Step 2. Step 2. Coarse grained or fine grained? (Porphyritic or Aphanitic) From the USGS photo glossary of volcanic terms

16 Igneous Rocks Texture and composition are the criteria used to classify most igneous rocks Texture and composition are the criteria used to classify most igneous rocks Composition categories are based on silica content Composition categories are based on silica content felsic (>65% silica) felsic (>65% silica) intermediate (53-65% silica) intermediate (53-65% silica) mafic (45-52% silica) mafic (45-52% silica)

17 Identifying Igneous Rocks Step 3. Step 3. Light or Dark? … Composition Hints Images from USGS Photo Library

18 Identifying Igneous Rocks Step 4. Step 4. What minerals present? Quartz – gray opaque, concoidal fracture K-Spar - pink Plagioclase feldspar – white to gray Muscovite – light, flakey Biotite – dark, flakey Pyroxene - LBM Amphibole - LBM USGS Mineral Specimen Photography: Bureau of Mines, ___ and Mineral collection of Bringham Young University Department of Geology, Provo, Utah

19 Igneous Rock Classification Diagram by staff of LPI

20 A Classification of Igneous Rocks Cooling History / Texture Slow Cooling and Coarse Grained Fast Cooling and Fine Grained Very Fast Cooling and Glassy/Cellular Mafic and Dark Color GabbroBasalt Scoria Intermediate in composition and color DioriteAndesite Felsic and Light Color GraniteRhyolitePumice and Obsidian

21 Green sand beach – why green? Image courtesy of Alison Henning, Rice University

22 Volcanoes! Image from http://photo.itc.nps.gov/storage/images/lavo/lavo-Full.00005.htmlhttp://photo.itc.nps.gov/storage/images/lavo/lavo-Full.00005.html Lassen Volcanic National Park, CA

23 Volcanic Deposits http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Hazards/What/hazards.html Shape depends on composition of magma… Basaltic Andesitic Rhyolitic …and gas content … and number and size of eruptions … and the environment of eruption

24 Volcanic Deposits http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Products/Pglossary/basalt.html

25 Why does silica matter? Si - O bonds much stronger than others Si - O bonds much stronger than others In lava, single silica tetrahedra flow easily, like little balls In lava, single silica tetrahedra flow easily, like little balls In lava, large silicate polymers flow poorly, like noodles In lava, large silicate polymers flow poorly, like noodles Diagram by staff of LPI

26 Basaltic Lava High temperature (1000-1200 C) High temperature (1000-1200 C) Lower silica content Lower silica content Extremely fluid Extremely fluid Images courtesy of Alison Henning, Rice University

27 Basaltic Lava Flood basalts – huge plateaus (e.g. Columbia Plateau of Washington and Oregon) Flood basalts – huge plateaus (e.g. Columbia Plateau of Washington and Oregon) Pahoehoe and aa – ropy vs. jagged blocks (e.g. Hawaiian volcanoes) Pahoehoe and aa – ropy vs. jagged blocks (e.g. Hawaiian volcanoes) Pillow lavas – ellipsoidal, cool underwater Pillow lavas – ellipsoidal, cool underwater Images from USGS Photo Glossary of Volcano Terms

28 Rhyolitic Lava Most felsic, light in color Most felsic, light in color Higher silica content Higher silica content Lower melting point than basalt. Erupts at 800- 1000 C Lower melting point than basalt. Erupts at 800- 1000 C Moves 10 X more slowly than basalt Moves 10 X more slowly than basalt Tends to be explosive – more gas (water) content Tends to be explosive – more gas (water) content USGS Photo Glossary of Volcano Terms

29 Gas Content Magma rises close to surface, pressure drops Volatiles released with explosive force Explosive eruptions most likely with gas-rich, viscous rhyolitic and andesitic magmas Pyroclasts – rock material ejected into air Image courtesy of Alison Henning, Rice University

30 Volcanic Landforms Shield volcanoes – Mauna Loa Shield volcanoes – Mauna Loa Big Big Broad, Low Slope Broad, Low Slope Properties of lava? Number of flows? Types of rocks? Properties of lava? Number of flows? Types of rocks? Image from http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/maunaloa/http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/maunaloa/

31 Volcanic Landforms Lava Plateau Lava Plateau Extensive Extensive Stacked flows Stacked flows Virtually no slope Virtually no slope Properties of lava? Number of flows? Type of rock? Properties of lava? Number of flows? Type of rock? Photo from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:3-Devils-grade-Moses-Coulee-Cattle-Feed-Lot-PB110016.JPG http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:3-Devils-grade-Moses-Coulee-Cattle-Feed-Lot-PB110016.JPG

32 Columbia Plateau 130,000 Km2 x 1.5 km thick Buried topography ~16 Ma

33 Cinder Cones Cinder Cones Small Small Steep slope (30 o ) Steep slope (30 o ) Basaltic … hmmmm Basaltic … hmmmm Properties of lava? Number of flows? Types of rocks? Properties of lava? Number of flows? Types of rocks? Volcanic Landforms USGS Photo by K. Segerstrom NPS image from Capulin, NMUSGS image

34 Small Small Few events Few events Flanks of Mauna Kea Flanks of Mauna Kea Common on shield volcano flanks Common on shield volcano flanks USGS Photo Glossary of Volcano Terms

35 Volcanic Landforms Composite Volcano Composite Volcano Big Big High slope (30 o ) High slope (30 o ) Made of multiple lava and ash flows Made of multiple lava and ash flows Explosive Explosive Properties of lava? Number of flows? Types of rocks? Properties of lava? Number of flows? Types of rocks? USGS Photo Glossary of Volcano Terms

36 Composite Volcano - Mt St Helens Images from http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/SlideSet/ljt_slideset.htmlhttp://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/SlideSet/ljt_slideset.html

37 Pinatubo USGS photo by Dave Harlow

38 Volcanic Landform Dome Dome Small Small Steep slope Steep slope Properties of lava? Number of flows? Type of rock? Properties of lava? Number of flows? Type of rock?

39 Foreshadowing … Patterns to where types of volcanos occur?

40 If a planet has active volcanos, what do we know about the planet? NASA/JPL/NGA image from http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06668http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06668

41 Where Does the Heat Come From? Hubble Image from http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1998/38/image/a/http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/1998/38/image/a/

42 Where Does the Heat Come From? (Terrestrial Planets) Originally: Impacts (accretion), differentiation, radioactive decay Presently: Mostly radioactive decay Image by LPI: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=168http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=168 Image by LPI

43 What Evidence Suggests Volcanism on Other Planets? NASA image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia00254http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia00254

44 What Planets Are / Have Been Volcanically Active? Past Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Io, Titan Presently Earth, Io, Enceledus, Triton Probably Venus and Mars Photo montage from http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=2167

45 Why Might a Planet Have Ceased Being Volcanically Active? Image: Lunar and Planetary Laboratory: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=178

46 Our Moon What do you observe? Image at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/timeline/gallery/slide_61.htmlhttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/timeline/gallery/slide_61.html

47 Big Impact Basins Filled by Lava Apollo image from http://www.lpi.usra.edu/expmoon/Apollo15/A15_Photography_orbital.html http://www.lpi.usra.edu/expmoon/Apollo15/A15_Photography_orbital.html Mare Imbrium Volcanism after impacts – most before 3 Ga (to 1 Ga)

48 Fissure Eruption Courtesy of USGS. http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/Thumblinks/Puuoorift_page.html

49 Lunar Basalts 15555 15016 3.3 Billion Years Old Apollo image at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/expmoon/Apollo15/A15_BasaltFS.gifhttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/expmoon/Apollo15/A15_BasaltFS.gif Apollo image from http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm

50 Lunar Volcanism Aristarchus Plateau Marius Hills photo by Lunar Orbiter V at http://history.nasa.gov/SP-168/section2b.htm Photo of Aristarchus Plateau at http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/gallery/2Craters_br-browse.jpg

51 Mercury Tons of Craters Some Flat Plains … hmmmmmm… Only ~ 1/3 imaged Messenger spacecraft on its way to orbit! Image: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/ss_tour/slide_2.htmlhttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/ss_tour/slide_2.html

52 Craters and Plains 500 km Mariner image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02948http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02948

53 Venus Magellan image from http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap020330.htmlhttp://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap020330.html

54 Venera Images - 1982 Image: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/ss_tour/slide_5.htmlhttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/ss_tour/slide_5.html

55 Sapas Mons – 1.5 km high, 400 km across Atla Regio Magellan image at http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/magellan/image28.htmlhttp://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/magellan/image28.html

56 Maat Mons – 8 km high, Aphrodite Terra Region Magellan color image at http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=2085 Courtesy of David P. Anderson (Southern Methodist University) Image at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/venus/slide_21.html

57 Pancake Domes Single Flows, Steep sides Height 1/2 - 1 km. What kind of volcano? What kind of lava? NASA Image from LPI: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/venus/slide_24.htmlhttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/venus/slide_24.html

58 Pancake Domes Rhyolite? Or merely cold, crystal-rich basalt? What kind of volcano? What kind of lava? USGS photo by R.A. Bailey

59 What’s missing? Few impact craters – what does this tell us? No craters less than 3 km (meteoroid ~ 30 m across) Atmospheric filter Magellan image from http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap020330.htmlhttp://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap020330.html

60 Mars dfldjfkdkfj dfldjfkdkfj MOLA image from http://pds-geosciences.wustl.edu/missions/mgs/mola.htmlhttp://pds-geosciences.wustl.edu/missions/mgs/mola.html

61 Volcanoes on Mars Mars geologic map at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/resources/mars_maps/1083/index.htmlhttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/resources/mars_maps/1083/index.html

62 Mars meteorite image at http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/marsmets/index.cfmhttp://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/marsmets/index.cfm

63 Olympus Mons TALLEST Volcano in the Solar System 24 km high 550-600 km across Mauna Loa 9 km high (sea floor) 120 km across (base) Lava flows in last million years? Viking image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02982http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02982

64 Mars LPI image at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/hawaiivolcanoes/slidespages/slide_01.htmlhttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/hawaiivolcanoes/slidespages/slide_01.html

65 LPI image at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/redplanet2/slide_10.htmlhttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/redplanet2/slide_10.html

66 Mars Olympus Mons Image overlain on topography and vertically exaggerated 10x MOLA image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02806http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02806

67 Mars Express images from http://www.esa.int/esaMI/Mars_Express/SEMKC2W4QWD_0.htmlhttp://www.esa.int/esaMI/Mars_Express/SEMKC2W4QWD_0.html And http://www.esa.int/esa-mmg/mmg.pl?b=b&keyword=Olympus%20Mons%203D&single=y&start=5

68 Broken Cinder Cone? On Syrtis Major - Shield Volcano USGS image at http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/fact-sheet/fs024-02/http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/fact-sheet/fs024-02/ Themis image at http://themis.la.asu.edu/zoom-20030514a.html

69 Why Might a Planet Have Ceased Being Volcanically Active?

70 Hubble

71 Io NASA Gallileo Image at: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/ss_tour/slide_23.htmlhttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/ss_tour/slide_23.html

72 Io About the size of our Noon HOT – tidal friction Lots of Sulfur Voyager detected Yellow-brown color Silicate lava – crust is silicate in nature (strong; supports high mountains and deep crevasses; lava flows at temps too high for S) NASA Gallileo Image at: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/ss_tour/slide_23.htmlhttp://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/slidesets/ss_tour/slide_23.html

73 Io Galileo Image Tvashtar Catena NASA Galileo image at: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02584http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02584

74 Io Amirani Lava Flow – Galileo Image Largest active flow in solar system (~200-300 km) Galileo image from http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03533http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03533

75 Plumes of sulfur / sulfur dioxide Long-lived (months) Geysers High – lack of atmospheric pressure and low gravity Old Faithful – 35 km high if on Io Io Voyager image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01971http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01971

76 New Horizons flew past Io in late February 2007 New Horizons photos at http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/gallery/missionPhotos/pages/022707_1.htm lhttp://pluto.jhuapl.edu/gallery/missionPhotos/pages/022707_1.htm


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