Minerals are nonliving, solid substances They occur naturally - they are not made by people Minerals have different shapes, colors, weights, and degrees of hardness Minerals come together to form rocks
There are three types of rocks: Each type of rock is formed in a different way
Igneous rocks form when molten material cools and hardens. –If the molten material is inside the earth, it is called magma. –If the molten material is on the earth’s surface, it is called lava. The molten material crystallizes into different minerals. The properties and sizes of the various crystals depend on the magma’s composition and rate of cooling.
Magma pushes up toward the surface. A volcano forms on the surface. Lava flows out of the volcano and cools quickly, forming igneous rocks. Underground magma pools form, the magma cools slowly, forming crystallized igneous rocks.
Pumice Obsidian Granite Basalt Examples of Igneous Rocks…
Sedimentary rocks are made of sediments –Sediments come from eroded igneous, metamorphic, and other sedimentary rocks, and the remains of dead plants and animals. These sediments are deposited in layers and are then squeezed and compressed into rock. Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks.
Over time, eroded sediments deposited at the base of a river. Under great pressure, the sediments are pressed or squeezed to form sedimentary rocks.
Examples of Sedimentary Rocks… Limestone Shale Conglomerate Sandstone
Metamorphic rocks form when sedimentary, igneous, or other metamorphic rocks are transformed by great heat and/or pressure. The word “metamorphic” come from the Greek language and means “to change form”.
Sediments sink and add pressure on lower rocks. Heat and pressure beneath the surface change the mineral make-up older rocks, forming new metamorphic rocks.
Gneiss Marble Metamorphic Mts. Schist Examples of Metamorphic Rocks…
Types of Rocks Igneous Made from Magma That has Cooled and Hardened Sedimentary Made from Sediments Under Under Pressure Metamorphic Form when Heat or Pressure Changes the Minerals into New Minerals
Rock cycle graphic: Earth Science: Part 2, (2002). The rock cycle. http://www.beyondbooks.com/ear82/7.asp Rock formation animations: Rocky the Rock Hound. http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow1/oct98/ Gravel background: sprott.physics.wisc.edu/ fractals.htm Sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic fill photos: http://wrgis.wr.usgs.gov/docs/usgsnps/rxmin/rock.html
Title of Lesson: Rocks Rock! Content Area: Science Grade Level: Third Grade Subject: Rocks and Minerals Objectives: The student will be able to tell that all rocks are made of minerals. The student will be able to name the three types of rocks. The student will be able to describe the three ways that rocks are formed. The student will be able to explain the rock cycle.
Purpose of Presentation To activate and build the students’ schema and background knowledge on rocks. To explain the three types of rocks in more detail than the textbook. To increase student interest in the topic of rocks. To accommodate visual and auditory learners.