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Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 1/ 26 Improving Ocean Literacy By Teaching.

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Presentation on theme: "Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 1/ 26 Improving Ocean Literacy By Teaching."— Presentation transcript:

1 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 1/ 26 Improving Ocean Literacy By Teaching the Geology of Lake Huron Improving Ocean Literacy By Teaching the Geology of Lake Huron David P. Lusch, Ph.D., GISP Dept. of Geography Michigan State University NSTA Northern/Midwestern Area Conference, Detroit, MI October, 2007 David P. Lusch, Ph.D., GISP Dept. of Geography Michigan State University NSTA Northern/Midwestern Area Conference, Detroit, MI October, 2007

2 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 2/ 26 Ocean Literacy Concept Map, Grades 3 – 5 Subset that are covered using Geology of Lake Huron 2. The ocean and life in the ocean shape the features of the earth 2.1 Some landforms we see today were once underwater 2.2 Movement of water erodes and deposits materials (sediments)

3 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 3/ 26 Ocean Literacy Concept Map, Grades 3 – Some landforms we see today were once underwater Forces underneath landmasses and the sea floor (tectonics) can change the shape of the earth’s surface Changes in sea level shape the earth’s surface During ice ages, sea level falls; during periods of warm climates, sea level rises

4 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 4/ 26 Ocean Literacy Concept Map Grades, 3 – Some landforms we see today were once underwater Some rocks found on land were formed in the ocean Sedimentary rocks form when ocean sediments are compressed Organisms embedded in sedimentary rocks become fossils Marine fossils can be found in various types of sedimentary rocks, especially shale and limestone

5 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 5/ 26 Ocean Literacy Concept Map Grades, 3 – Movement of water erodes and deposits materials (sediments) Rivers carry sediments downstream to the oceans (clastic sediments) The facies concept explains lateral variations in the lithologic characteristics of sediments of the same geological age Wave energy in the shore zone keeps the finer clastic sediments in suspension Fine clastic sediments settle out in the off-shore clastic zone Carbonate-rich sediments are deposited in the deeper off-shore, non-clastic zone

6 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 6/ 26 Canadian Shield Michigan Sedimentary Basin

7 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 7/ 26 Michigan Sedimentary Basin  Michigan Basin was inundated numerous times by oceans, which eventually filled it with sedimentary deposits  Four general sedimentary rock types fill the Michigan Basin: Sandstones Carbonates (limestone and dolostone) Shales Evaporites (halite and gypsum)

8 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 8/ 26 Michigan Sedimentary Basin  Younger rocks (542 – 145 million years old)  All sedimentary (mostly marine deposits) Sandstone Shale Carbonates (Limestone and Dolostone)  Variably resistant to erosion Sandstone and carbonates resist physical erosion Shale is soft, thinly bedded and easily eroded

9 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 9/ 26 N X Equator Cambrian 500 Ma

10 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 10/ 26 What a difference 20 million years makes! Equator Mississippian 345 Ma Equator N Mississippian 325 Ma N Equator

11 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 11/ 26 Facies Concept  Lateral variations in the lithologic characteristics of a volume of sediments of the same geologic age Off-shore non-clastic zone Near-shore zone Off-shore clastic zone Wave energy keeps fine clastic sediments in suspension No wave energy - fine clastic sediments settle out No wave energy - no clastics non-clastic sediments settle out Becomes sandstone Becomes shale Becomes limestone/ dolostone

12 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 12/ 26 Differential erosion  Sedimentary rock types are of unequal resistance to physical erosion: Sandstones and Carbonates are stronger and tend to support highlands Shales are weaker and tend to underlie lowlands

13 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 13/ 26 Michigan Sedimentary Basin  Structural basin – like nested bowls  Oldest rocks at the bottom, youngest at the top

14 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 14/ 26 Niagaran Escarpment  Major resistant-rock (dolomite) landform in the Michigan Structural Basin

15 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 15/ 26 Niagaran Escarpment Bruce Peninsula, Ontario N Dip slope Scarp slope

16 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 16/ 26 Bedrock of the Lake Huron Basin

17 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 17/ 26 Bathymetry of the Lake Huron Basin

18 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 18/ 26 Bathymetry of the Lake Huron Basin

19 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 19/ 26  Origin of the Great Lakes  Distal causes For Lake Superior - plate tectonics and rifting For the lower Great Lakes - development of the Michigan sedimentary basin  Proximal causes Glacial sculpting of bedrock, mediated by differences in resistance to erosion Isostatic uplift of the region shifting the watershed outlet

20 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 20/ 26  Beginning about 15,500 C 14 years ago, the melting Ice Sheet began uncovering Lower Michigan.  A series of proglacial lakes formed at the margin of the retreating Ice Sheet wherever the land sloped towards the ice front.

21 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 21/ 26 Glacial Lake Elkton (Lundy) Glacial Lake Elkton 12,400 C 14 yrs ago

22 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 22/ 26  Lake levels in the Great Lakes Basin progressively fell as new outlets were uncovered and down-cut.  Eventually, the water levels in the Huron Basin reached their lowest elevation when drainage shifted to the final outlet at North Bay, Ontario, which flowed eastward along the Ottawa River Valley.

23 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 23/ 26

24 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 24/ 26 ISOSTATIC REBOUND

25 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 25/ 26  Isostatic rebound evidence Nipissing wave cliff Algonquin 11,000 C 14 yrs m Nipissing 4500 C 14 yrs m Algonquin 11,000 C 14 yrs m Nipissing 4500 C 14 yrs m 51.8 m rise in 6500 yrs. Nipissing wave cliff Algonquin wave cliffs

26 Michigan State University David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. David P. Lusch, Ph.D, GISP. 26/ 26 The End


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