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Sedimentary Basins (Part One). What are Sedimentary Basins? Holes in the ground where sediment accumulates Global distribution: Sub-aerial and submarine.

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Presentation on theme: "Sedimentary Basins (Part One). What are Sedimentary Basins? Holes in the ground where sediment accumulates Global distribution: Sub-aerial and submarine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sedimentary Basins (Part One)

2 What are Sedimentary Basins? Holes in the ground where sediment accumulates Global distribution: Sub-aerial and submarine

3 Why are Basins Interesting? Hydrocarbons: Oil, Gas, Coal Ores & Minerals

4 Liquid hydrocarbon production will peak in ~10 years at 30 Billion Barrels per annum, declining to ~5 Billion Barrels per annum by the end of the 21 st Century Some estimates…

5 Keeping up Supply: Polar Exploration?

6 Keeping up Supply: Deep Water Exploration?

7 Technologies: Seismic Reflection Imaging Deep Water drilling/production Finding: Direct hydrocarbon Indicators Extracting: Mopping up the dregs 1973 Year 2003 BP Forties Field: Monthly Average Oil Production Rate 1988 and D seismic surveys Keeping up Supply: Importance of Technology

8 Peak Oil: Supply Peaks & Declines Smoothly? Technology buffers decline?

9 Why does Sediment Accumulate Here?

10 Accommodation Space Sea-Level Change Tectonic Uplift / Subsidence Basins form through Tectonic Subsidence

11 Thickest sediment accumulations are 15 to 20 km Tend to form in enclosed basins supplied by major rivers World’s Thickest Sediment Accumulations

12 Sedimentary basins around Ireland

13 Probing Sedimentary Basins Surface sampling and mapping Topography and bathymetry Boreholes (<5 km) Seismic experiments (2D, 3D, 4D) Earthquake analysis Undeformed basins are subsurface

14 Very little of a typical underformed basin is accessible by surface sampling / mapping

15 12 km Ninian Fault Block, North Sea vertical exageration x3 to x4 Seismic Reflection Imaging

16 Seismic Reflection Imaging Technology

17 Borehole Records 1. Thicknesses 2. Ages 3. Sediment Composition Reconstruct sediment acccumulation history Hence reconstruct tectonic subsidence history

18 Stratigraphic Growth

19 Timing of source maturation: Cumulative Stratigraphy Plot

20 Sediment Loading Correction

21 Tectonic Subsidence Curves

22 Basin Classification: Process ‘Basin Analysis’, Allen & Allen, Chapter 1

23 Basin Classification: This Course Extensional basins (60-70%) Flexural or foreland basins (10-20%) Basins associated with subduction zones Other basin types…


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