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ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical.

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Presentation on theme: "ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer Engineering 11 Conceptual Design

2 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 2 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design OutLine  Concept Design  What is a design concept?  Clarifying functional requirements  Generating design concepts  Analyzing alternative designs  Developing “product” alternatives  Evaluating product alternatives  Concept Design Review  Information flow & storage  Intellectual property protection

3 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 3 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Prob Formulation  Concept Formulation Customer Needs Customer requirements Importance weights House of Quality Engr. characteristics Engr. Design Spec’s Concept Design “Best” Alternative Concepts Will Cover in 2nd Half of Course

4 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 4 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Concept Design Flow Design Process  The Concept Design is the first part of the design process after writing the Design Specifications  Conceptual Design is the intellectual exercise to generate ways implement the actual design goals.  This step is successful if we produce AT LEAST one feasible alternative to work with when we are done.

5 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 5 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Terms of the Trade  Conceptual Design Process ≡ The generation of design alternatives or Design Concepts and the supporting analysis to determine the feasibility of each alternative.  Design Concept ≡ A design alternative that includes at least one physical principle and one abstract embodiment.

6 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 6 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Terms of the Trade  Physical Principle ≡ A natural law or effect that produces a useable method of modifying a signal or device to produce a functional output. For example, the photoelectric effect is a physical principle that produces a current in proportion to the intensity of the incident light.  Abstract Embodiment ≡ A diagram that shows the relative relationship between the actors in the design. It need not be to scale.

7 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 7 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Physical Principles  Physical (Science) Principle Application is the CORE of all Physical Design  Physical Principle ≡ the means by which some effect is caused  Some Examples  Conservation of Mass Energy Momentum  Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion  Fick’s 2 Diffusion Laws  Ohm’s Law  Kirchoff’s Laws  Bernoulli’s Law  Gauss’ Law

8 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 8 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Example  Terms of Trade  The DECISION about the Physical Principle Leads to the Embodiment Design ElementPhysical PrincipleAbstract Embodiment Energy Generation PhotoElectric Effect Nuclear Fission Combustion Solar Cell Uranium Fueled Reactor Coal-Fired Boiler Data Communications Radio Waves Optical Wire BlueTooth/WiFi Laser & PhotoDetector CoAx Cable Energy Storage ElectroChemical Mechanical Motion NiMH Battery FlyWheel

9 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 9 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Disc Brake “Working Principle” Note: no sizes, only vague shape motion (rotation) physical principle (friction force caused by caliper clamping force) material (solid) surface (planar area) working geometry

10 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 10 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Physical Object ConCept Design  An Abstract Embodiment That Includes Physical principle(s), Material(s) of Construction Object geometry → Relative Sizes & Shapes  In This Case “Abstract” implies an Imprecise or Broad Specification

11 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 11 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Decision-Making InPut/OutPut Formulation Customer Needs Customer requirements Importance weights House of Quality Engr. characteristics Engr. Design Spec’s Concept Design Abstract Embodiment Physical Principles Material Geometry

12 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 12 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design ConCept Design GamePlan  Major Goals for ConCept Design Phase Generate LOTS of feasible design concepts (i.e., alternatives) Somehow select the “best” one or two concepts  Is there a Process or Procedure we can follow to improve Odds of success? Consult the OverAll design process to guide us through the Concept design

13 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 13 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Concept Design Generate Alternatives Clarify Functions Analyze Iteration Will not violate laws of nature Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements Likely to satisfy company requirements Archives, People Internet, Creative methods Engineering Design Specification 1 st order calculations Proof of concept tests Bench test, Pilot plant Feasible ? Best Concept(s) Pugh’s Method Weighted Rating Method Evaluate Activity Analysis Decomposition Diagrams Function Structures Concept Design yes no

14 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 14 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Product Life  Customer View  The Owner of a Physical Product Experiences Time-Phases 1.RampUp = UnPak, SetUp, FireUp/TurnOn 2.Cruise (Productive Period) = Operate, Maintain, Repair 3.WindDown = CoolDown/TurnOff, TearDown, ReCycle, Discard  Activity Analysis examines Customer Actions during All three Phases of Life

15 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 15 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Activity Analysis Electric Shaver Use Setup 1. open package 2. examine shaver, cord, travel case, and cleaning brush 3. read instruction booklet (hopefully) 4. fill out warranty card 5. plug in shaver to charge batteries 6. put shaver, case, cord, brush in bathroom cabinet drawer Daily use 7. remove charged shaver from drawer 8. trim hair 9. shave face or legs 10. remove cutter blade cover 11. brush cutter blade 12. replace cover 13. repeat step store shaver in drawer 15. repeat steps 7-14 until blades need replacing Replace blade 16. remove cutter blade cover 17. install new cutter blade 18. replace cutter cover Daily use 19. repeat steps 7-13 until batteries need replacing Replace batteries 20. install new rechargeable batteries Daily use 21. repeat steps until shave becomes unrepairable RetireDispose of shaver 22. throw out shaver and auxiliaries; recycle Batteries

16 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 16 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Product Function DeComposition  The Functional Decomposition takes the design functional requirements and refines them into respective subfunctions.  The functions are not broken down by expected physical embodiments but by similar operations.

17 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 17 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design DeComp Example  Drip Coffee Maker BreakDown by FUNCTION Performed make coffee boil water brew coffee warm coffe e pot Store water, filter grounds convert electricity to heat drip water on coffee control electricity conduct electricity

18 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 18 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Fcn DeComp Diagram Utility  Breaks down big functions into smaller basic subfunctions to improve our ability to “match” existing concepts to basic functions  Fully understand customer requirements (use & retire)  Disconnect function from form  Identify system boundaries  Increase the potential for new combinations of SubFunctions

19 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 19 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Function Structure Diagram  Shows All Significant InPuts & OutPuts Energy Material Information Control Energy Material Information Control FUNCTION INPUT State OUTPUT State

20 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 20 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Generating Alternative Design Concepts Generate Alternatives Clarify Functions Analyze Iteration Will not violate laws of nature Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements Likely to satisfy company requirements Archives, People Internet, Creative methods Engineering Design Specification 1 st order calculations Proof of concept tests Bench test, Pilot plant Feasible ? Best Concept(s) Pugh’s Method Weighted Rating Method Evaluate Activity Analysis Decomposition Diagrams Function Structures Concept Design yes no

21 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 21 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Biggest Mistake  The Biggest Mistake made by Design Engineers Making the FIRST Concept Developed The ONLY Concept Considered; i.e., the FAILURE to CONSIDER MORE THAN ONE Design Concept

22 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 22 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design SubFunction & Concept No.s  In Formulating the Design Problem we Develop a List of Required SubFunctions; e.g., SF 1, SF 2, SF 3...SF m  For Each of the “m” SF’s we develop “n” Design Concepts to implement the fcn e.g., We Generate 4 concepts for SF 7  C ij Concept-Numbering Notation i ≡ SF No. j ≡ ConCept No. Concept No.s for SF 7  {C 71, C 72, C 72, C 74 }

23 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 23 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Generating Alternatives  ALL the “m” SF’s must be realized  Each SF has “n” Design Alternatives  The TOTAL possible number of individual Concept Combinations that meet the requirements for the ENTIRE Product is the Total Number of Design Alternatives, A:

24 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 24 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Example  Design MiniBike  The SubFunctions SF 1 ≡ Transmit Power from the Engine to the Rear Wheel –3 Concepts: Chain, Belt, Shaft SF 2 ≡ Brakes to Stop Bike Motion –2 Concepts: Disc, Drum SF 3 ≡ Method to Steer Bike –3 Concepts: HandleBar, Steering Wheel, Electronic JoyStick

25 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 25 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design SF/Concept Matrics  Summarize the Design Alternative Combinations in Matrix Form  The Total Number of Design Alternatives

26 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 26 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Listing Alternatives  The “MorphoLogical” Matrix  A Design Alternative is Constructed by Selecting ONE of the C ij from Each Row

27 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 27 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Example  Alternatives  Consider Two Possible Bike Designs  A 1 = Chain + Drum + Wheel Concept Notation: A 1 = C 11, C 22, C 32  A 2 = Shaft + Disc + HandleBar Concept Notation: A 2 = C 13, C 21, C 31

28 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 28 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design ConCept Generation  Design teams use various strategies to generate Concepts that should meet the SubFunction Design Requirements.  This Process is also sometimes called synthesis.  Use brainstorming, past experience, similar designs, “Google” searches, WAG’s,“sleeping on it,” etc.  This process may take some time!

29 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 29 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design CG: Resources & Methods  Consult Archives libraries (university, public, corporate) literature (handbooks, monographs, trade mag.s, journals, encyclop, DataBases)  People  CoWorkers, Faculty, Sales People, Consultants  Internet Searches  General WWW, US Patent office, Suppliers, Professional Societies, etc.

30 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 30 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design CG: Resources & Methods  Analyze Existing Products similar or competitive products dissection, reverse engineering  Creative Methods Brainstorming Method 635 Synectics (analogy, fantasy, empathy, inversion) Checklists; e.g. Osborn’s List: –substitute, combine, adapt, magnify, minify put to other use, eliminate, rearrange, and reverse

31 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 31 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design “Creativity Methods” Companies Surveyed ABB Switzerland Ltd., Kühne & Nagel, Georg Fischer, L’Oréal Produit de Luxe, Adecco, Clariant, Swiss Post, Logitech, Nestlé, Credit Suisse, Glencore, Winterthur, Novartis, Migros, Danzas, Group Holcim, Coop Syngenta, Schindler Panalpina, Liebherr, Swatch, Globus, Cosmos, Lonza Group, Hilti, Tissot, Manor, Bon Appétit Gruppe, Saurer Gruppe, Serono, Hotelplan, Unaxis Holding, Siemens Building Technologies AG, PubliGroupe – Consultas SA

32 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 32 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design BrainStorming (Fusion Design)

33 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 33 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Concept Analysis Generate Alternatives Clarify Functions Analyze Iteration Will not violate laws of nature Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements Likely to satisfy company requirements Archives, People Internet, Creative methods Engineering Design Specification 1 st order calculations Proof of concept tests Bench test, Pilot plant Feasible ? Best Concept(s) Pugh’s Method Weighted Rating Method Evaluate Activity Analysis Decomposition Diagrams Function Structures Concept Design yes no

34 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 34 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Analyze ≡ “Predict” & “Screen”  Analyze: use engineering analysis, simulation, bench testing, etc. to verify that the design concept does work to meet the specifications  Goal: (Roughly) predict/estimate each alternative’s performance  Some Predictive Tools 1 st order calcs. (back of the envelope) Proof of concepts (physical principle “tests”) “Fatal Flaw” Analysis

35 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 35 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Screen for Feasibility  Feasibility Test: does the design analysis indicate that the design concept will meet the specifications and actually can be executed.  Feasibility Questions Likely to function; i.e., will it work? Likely to satisfy customer requirements? –Will customers BUY it? Likely to satisfy company requirements? –Will it be PROFITABLE?

36 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 36 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Evaluate Alternatives Generate Alternatives Clarify Functions Analyze Iteration Will not violate laws of nature Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements Likely to satisfy company requirements Archives, People Internet, Creative methods Engineering Design Specification 1 st order calculations Proof of concept tests Bench test, Pilot plant Feasible ? Best Concept(s) Pugh’s Method Weighted Rating Method Evaluate Activity Analysis Decomposition Diagrams Function Structures Concept Design yes no

37 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 37 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Concept Evaluation  Once the design concepts are generated and evaluated for feasibility, the surviving concepts need to be evaluated to determine which one is “best.”  How does one define “best”? One common method is to use the criteria for the design and weight the relative importance to determine “best.” –Note: the designers must be careful not to “rig” the weighting to make a favorite come out “best”

38 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 38 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Weighted Evaluation Method  Select the evaluation criteria and place in column 1 of a matrix.  Importance weights are assigned to each criterion and placed in column 2 of the matrix.  The concepts to be evaluated are placed in subsequent columns of the matrix.  Each concept is rates against the criteria and a score, or grade, of 0 to 4 is given. A 0 implies unsatisfactory performance while a 4 is implies very good performance.  Each score is multiplied by the weighting factor and the scores are summed. Highest weighted score “wins.”

39 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 39 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Example  Data Comm Sys

40 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 40 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Example Evaluation Matrix  Notice that functional requirements are not included because it is assumed that all design concepts meet the testable requirements (ALL are feasible).  Often used for intangibles or more subjective criteria. Testable requirements with varying degrees of performance can also be included if desired

41 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 41 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Design Concept Complete Generate Alternatives Clarify Functions Analyze Iteration Will not violate laws of nature Likely to satisfy “must” customer requirements Likely to satisfy company requirements Archives, People Internet, Creative methods Engineering Design Specification 1 st order calculations Proof of concept tests Bench test, Pilot plant Feasible ? Best Concept(s) Pugh’s Method Weighted Rating Method Evaluate Activity Analysis Decomposition Diagrams Function Structures Concept Design yes no

42 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 42 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Information Management  The ConCept Design Activities Tend to Generate a LOT of Important Info  photocopies of archival matter,  printouts from the Internet,  vendor catalogs and data sheets,  preliminary test results,  first-order calculations,  patent abstracts,  minutes of meetings,  concept sketches,  concept screening sheets  concept evaluation matrices  expert interview notes

43 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 43 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Design Information Protection  Is design “information” property?  Whose property is it?  Can it be protected? what? where ? who? when? why? Record? Manage? Protect?

44 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 44 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Type of Property  Real property  land, buildings  Personal/Company property Tangible  trucks, cell-ph’s, office equip. Intangible  –contracts –copyrights –trademarks –patents –trade secrets

45 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 45 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Intellectual Property  Contracts Definition ≡ A Written or Oral Agreement Between Two Parties (People, Companies) –Example: Non-DisClosure, Consulting  CopyRight Definition ≡ Exclusive Right to Publication, Production, or Sale of the Rights to a Literary, Dramatic, Musical, or Artistic work –Examples: Book, Sheet Music, Software, ScreenPlay, PhotoGraph

46 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 46 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Intellectual Property  TradeMarks Definition ≡ A Symbol, Design, Word, or Letter Used by a Manufacturer or Dealer to Distinguish his Products from Those of Competitors –Examples: Windows, iPhone, Techron, Sprite, HP, DreamLiner, Corvette, Tide, Lipitor, Eskimo Pie, etc.

47 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 47 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design IP  “Trade Dress”  Trade Dress is a distinctive, nonfunctional feature, which distinguishes a merchant's or manufacturer's goods or services from those of another. (appearance)  The trade dress of a product involves the "total image" and can include the color of the packaging, the configuration of goods, etc. Even the theme of a restaurant may be considered trade dress. Examples: Wonder Bread Packaging, the tray configuration for Healthy Choice frozen dinners, color scheme of Subway sub shops, Coke Bottle Shape, 7-11 red/green store sign

48 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 48 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Intellectual Property  Patents Definition ≡ A Document Granting Monopoly rights to Produce or get Profit from an invention, process, or Design –Examples:  Utility Patents: XeroX Copying, Light Bulb, Internal Combustion Engine, InkJet Printer, Electric Drill, Torx Drive  Process Patents: How to Make Teflon, Delrin, Penicillin  Design Patents: Ornamental aspects of a Product such as Shape, Configuration, or Decoration

49 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 49 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Intellectual Property  Trade Secret Definition ≡ A Method used to Make a Product That is Kept Secret by Company Manufacturing the Product Examples –“11 Herbs & Spices” –“lo-k” Gate Material for Intel Transistors –AutoCAD.dwg File-Format

50 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 50 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design IP Protection Summary © Bruce Mayer, PE

51 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 51 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design All Done for Today Planer Process Patents  Making “Flat” Transistors  Jack Kilby vs. Robert Noyce

52 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 52 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Bruce Mayer, PE Registered Electrical & Mechanical Engineer Engineering 11 Appendix

53 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 53 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Method (Brain-Writing)  The traditional brainstorming relies on verbal communications. Idea generation may be dominated by a small number of aggressive members.  Guidelines for method  Team members are arranged around a circular table to provide continuity. Six (6) members are ideal.  Each member sketches three (3) ideas for the product configuration or functions. Sketches should be the focus of this activity. The top five product functionswith respect to the customer needs are considered.

54 ENGR-11_Lec-03_Chp4_Concept_Design.ppt 54 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design


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