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Presentation on theme: "Buddhism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Buddhism

2 Buddhist sacred text and teachings
. Triptaka/ palicanon is a sacred text that mean three baskets It uses 130,000 wood blocks . Basket 1 = vinaya pitaka /basket of discipline. Basket 2 = sutta pitaka /basket of discourse. Basket 3 = abhidhamma pitaka\ basket of metaphysics It was often stored in baskets. Basket 1 = over 200 debates on realigns belief and percepts of monks and nuns/ explains how Buddha chose them. Basket 2= over 10,000 sayings of Buddha and over and teaches inner peace and self control. Basket 3 = teachings of Buddha. Written on palm leaves originally. Sacred text called sutra. Monks study scriptures everyday. At first none of his teaching were wrote down When he died they wanted to remember his teaching Only some of his followers could write. Only his closest follower could be allowed to write his teachings. Piers

3 What do Buddhists believe?
Do not believe in god Buddhists believe in karma, deities, and bodhisattvas Deities: supernatural beings that create rain, good crops, wealth, children, and protection Bodhisattvas: enlightened people who postpone nirvana to help others achieve Nirvana Karma: a belief that your actions determine your next life. Good karma helps you achieve enlightenment Must achieve enlightenment to pass on to nirvana If enlightenment is not achieved you are reborn into one of six realms Your karma determines which realm you will be reborn into By Alex B.

4 BUDDHISM How did this religion start?
More than 25hundred years ago, there was an Indian prince named Siddhartha Gotama. Gautama He was raised in a very rich and influential family, He thought he couldn’t find the peace in Hindu. He studied and worked on ideas of salvation. Buddha created founded Buddhism after studying for years He created Buddhism and his name became Budda. Now there are 365 million people that follows Buddhism. Lucy

5 Who are the Buddhist gods and religious leaders?
No God -Siddhartha Gautama-Indian prince -married princess yasodhara -rags for clothes shaved head -Buddha’s first followers- 5 holy men -Spent 7 yrs together w/ followers -First group name-sangha -Beginning-no women -45 yrs Buddha travelled & spread teachings -Buddhism is still growing -Emperor Ashoka-not like violence-became Buddhist -E.A. sent monk/nuns to teach Buddhism

6 Hinduism

7 How Do They Practice Their Religion?
Can be practiced in many different ways Some Hindus pray everyday Some Hindus don’t pray to anyone Free to worship in their own way Hindus worship Brahman, Vishnu , Shiva and Shiva’s wife Vishnu and Shiva are the most popular gods Brahman is universal and everything Hindus worship at home, temples, religions and other types of buildings Brahman can be translated to god Nothing exists if Brahman isn’t in it By: Adam Huang

8 What religious text does Hinduism follow
Holy Books: beliefs written in Vedas, Puranas , Manu smirti, and Bhagavad-Gita Written over 5,000 years ago Many holy books written Most written in Sanskrit About different subjects-praise gods-worship Holy book divided into two books shruti, smirti Shruti= heard Smirti= remember Rig-Vedas= oldest sacred writings

9 What religious text does Hinduism follow
Originated 3,000 B,C Put into writing = 1,000 B,C Oldest religious writings still used be living religion Vedas brought into India 1,500 B,C Contain best known stories Have legends/myths Guidelines to social/religious behavior Stories used hero’s /villains Epics important to Hiduizing India Vast sacred sites /holy cities

10 How did Hinduism start? Thousands of years ago in India
Began about 4,000 years ago Indus valley region invaded by Aryans Practices of 2 main groups put together: People of Indus valley People of the Aryans of Persia Aryans brought their beliefs with them Indus valley & Aryans beliefs came together

11 How did Hinduism start? continued…
Started long ago, no one really knows how it started It has no founder Hinduism has spread all around the world 1 of the oldest religions Developed gradually over a period of time ~Sarah Traub

12 Sikhism

13 What is religious text The holy book has 1430 pages (Guru Granth Sahib) The holy book is written in Gurumukhi It takes 48 hours to read the book Some of the text in the book is sung The book is only brought out in the morning They read scriptures in their temples A man waves chari over book as being read Nine gurus remembered for contribution to book Sikhs hold a read in for guru nanaks b-day They teach of the nine gurus in the holy book The book is treated like a human

14 Who are their Gods/Goddesses/religious Leaders
One God - Almighty and eternal - Made universe 4) Good - Created males and females - Is not male or female 3)Guru = Religious and wise teacher 2)First Sikh guru = Guru Nanak - Was born in small village on flat green plain known as Punjab - Was born into a Hindu family 12) Was a thoughtful person - Deeply troubled by divisions between Hindus and Muslims - Received messages from God - Telling him to go out and teach people how to follow simple faith - Taught people trying to lead good lives, pray and meditate - Made God’s teachings into poems - After Guru Nanak died, chose guru Angad to take place Went west to Makah and east to Assam 20) Gurus were chosen for their belief by Kosta

15 How did Sikhism start? 500 yrs. Old Originated in Punjab, India
10 Gurus 1st Guru = Guru Nanak Guru = Holy man/teacher Nanak born 1469 in Hindu family God says Nanak is leader/teacher of people God tells Nanak to teach people follow simple faith Nanak goes on 4 journeys to teach belief to others

16 How did Sikhism start? Nanak teaches ceremonies/rituals are not path to God People made to believe one God = creator, present everywhere People work hard w/ honesty, serve community, not gather great wealth Wake up early, meditate and bathe everyday

17 How do Sikhs practice their religion?
They follow the 5 K’s The 5 K’s are kesha(uncut beard and hair) , kangha(comb),kara(steel bracelet),kirpin(sword) Get up early, bathe, meditate and do god’s will Perform Sewa (3 types: give time and energy to help people, provide service to others, and talk to others about god) Guru Granth Sahib opened at dawn (prakash) closed at dusk (sukhasan) Stand humbly in front of Guru Granth recite ardas (prayer of supplication) Attend gurdwara (place of worship),no shoes inside and eat after service. Drink armit (special mix of water and sugar) They pray whenever have the chance or when doing something else.

18 How do Sikhs practice their religion?
1) Sikh temple/house = “Gurdwara”, go to the “Gurdwara” on Sunday 2) At temple, listen to “Granthi” 3) “Granthi” = person reading guru“Granth” sahib. 4) Guru Granth” sahib = prayer book. 5) Remove shoes, wash feet and hands when enter “Gurdwara” 7) Men and women sit separately. 6) They sing to God + pray 8) There are 5 k’s. 9) K number 1 = un cut hair = no shave and no cutting hair. 10) Hair should be clean and comes 2 times a day.

19 How do Sikhs practice their religion?
11)K number 2 kanga = small wooden comb to keep hair in place. 12)K number 3 = kirpan = short sword 13)Kirpan = fight evil, only defence, never attack. 14)K number 4 = Kara 15)Kara Plain steel bracelet worn on the right wrist. 16)Kara Reminds Sikhs = one god and one truth. 17)K number 5 = Kachhehra 18)Kachhehra are short pants worn as under wear. 19)Turban most male Sikhs and female Sikhs wear one. 20)Cloth 16ft. long = sign of power.

20 Judaism

21 What religious text does this religions follow? Why is it important?
Torah is about 197feet (60 meters) long unwound. Scroll of the Torah is called sefer torah. Each copy is written by hand by specially trained scribe. The scribe uses special ink and a quill pen. A sefer Torah takes more than a year to complete. Material used for a scroll is parchment, not paper. A special pointer called a yed is used to follow the world as the scroll is read in the synagogue. The complete scriptures are called the tenakh = Holy Book The five book of the torah are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. They are sometimes known as the five book of Moses. The books are the history of the beginning of the Jewish people. The first is the Torah, the book of teaching.aka the 5 Books of Moses The second is the Nevi’im, the book of the prophets. The third is the Ketuvim, the books of writings. Studying the Torah is important to Judaism. Inspired by God to give massages messages to the Jews.

22 How do they practice Judaism?
Special celebrations to do with age After reading in congregation, B.M. person called up to torah to read final verses Once reading done, B.M. person reads chapter from prophets (related to week’s reading) Chapter from prophets = haftorah Brit Milah – circumcision for 8 days old boy, then is blessed 13 years old boy = old enough for adult religious responsibilities (bar mitzvah) Before B.M., boy studies Hebrew, reading, singing + portion of torah and p. from propets Girl = Bat mitzvah for 12 year olds (same procedure) Sabbath Light 2 candles every Friday night marking start of Sabbath = Shabbat Shabbat ends nightfall Saturday Friday set table with white cloth + best silverware + 2 candles Meals and Rules for Eating Law of Kashruth don’t let Jews take in blood Fish with scales or skin + fins allowed Challah = braided bread always on table before meals Before meal father prays with wine to give thanks Say grace before + after eating

23 How do they practice Judaism?
Congregation and bibles Go to synagogue on Saturdays (and listen to rabbi) Everyone follows reading in own bible during congregation Congregation doesn’t need Rabbi to lead prayers + read Torah Rabbi = J. teacher, preacher, + judge of J. law Bible = Chumash Chumash = “the five” for five books of Moses Women sometimes sit separately from men during congregation Kids sit with anyone during congregation Prayers and prayer books J.s believe see themselves clearly when talk + listen to God (Pray) Better to pray together Almost all J. prayers use we, us, our + you Sometimes pray with prayer shawl Prayer shawl = box put on head with strap P.S. contains some verses of Torah read Torah

24 Who are their god/gods/religious leaders
2 important leaders (prophets) Abraham and Moses Abraham BCE Abraham born in Ur in Babylonia Abraham founding father of Jewish nation Abraham had 2 sons Isaac and Ishmael Jews believe Isaac is ancestor of Jews Moses BCE Moses born in Egypt God sent prophets to earth such as Moses God said to Moses how he wanted Israelites to behave Moses most important but Jews don’t have single leader Saul first king of Israel Ajay

25 What do Jews Believe in? Tenakh = Jewish Holy Book God.
Judaism based off Torah. Torah most important part of Jewish Bible. Torah= “Teaching” in Hebrew. Jews chosen receive gods Torah. God. One eternal, invisible, almighty god. Good deeds rewarded greatly in Heaven. Will send a Messiah bring Perfect World. Controls all Nature and History. Lives forever. Knows everything. Is everywhere. Has no physical form. Loves the Jewish people. Provided scriptures & laws everyone must obey. Sent prophets to Earth. (Prophet= A person who speaks for God) Will send the Messiah Gave Moses 10 commandments/basic laws.(but altogether 613 Commandments) Controls nature and History

26 What do Jews believe in? By Zarley Zalusky
The six Days of Creation (i.e. the world was created in 6 days.) First day of creation God created Day and Night. Second day of creation God created Earth and Heaven. Third day of creation God created seas, land, and everything that grows from ground. Fourth day of creation god created the sun, moon, and stars. Fifth day of creation God created the fish and birds. Sixth and last day of creation God created all land, animals, and people. Jews believe world will end one day By Zarley Zalusky

27 Christianity

28 What religious text does Christianity follow?
-Bible :Christianity's holy book. -Bible: collection of 66 divided int0 2 parts. -1st part :Old Testament(include Jewish holy book), 2nd part: New Testament. -Jesus+ 1st part of Bible= Jewish(teach Old Testament). -Old Testament=>how Jewish people learned what god is like. -New Testament=>story of Christianity in early times. -New Testament : Jesus teaching. -New Testament : reading the Bible shows Jesus teachings and his faith in life.

29 What religious text does Christianity follow?
-Jesus = son of God. -It took centuries : complete the Bible. -Bible contain complete of Jewish Bible. -Bible= compiles years after Jesus death. -Bible translated in +2,000 different languages. -Bible is not written by Jesus.

30 What does Christians believe?
- one god=three “people”=trinity - god the father, the son (Jesus) and the Holy Spirit -Holy Spirit=power of god - god the father is eternal and creator of universe - most complete demonstration of god=Jesus=god the son - Jesus=Messiah (someone who is anointed or chosen by god) - Jesus=completely god and man - Jesus has special relationship with god - believe Jesus (died nailed to cross) brought back 3 days later by god=resurrection - resurrection shows death not the end - possible for sins be forgiven (important part of teaching) - Jesus saves them from results of sins - stopped them from getting closer to god (their savior) - possible to work ship worship god and power to live life the way god wants - they should follow Jesus’ example=love everyone - god loves everyone=should be kind and loving and forgiving - get rewarded in heaven for good deeds - whole live in sight of god

31 How do Christians practice their religion?
- Go to church a.Listen to a priest talk about God the bible the bible d.sing songs called hymns e.carry their prayer books - pray a.= act of faith b.tell God of how they feel and ask for help c.can pray any where they want by Justin

32 What gods/religious leaders are there in Christianity?
Leaders = Jesus, Pope of Catholic Church. His parents were Joseph and Mary. Born in Stable in Bethlehem. Named "Jesus” “Joshua” or “Messiah” by cultures. Baptized by John the Baptist. Was Jewish. Proclaimed “King of Jews” Jesus = Messiah = Bad to Roman authorities/Jewish leaders. Jesus accused of Blasphemy. Punished to Crucifixion. Died of Crucifixion. Authorities killed all early priests for disobeying Judaism. God the Father/Son/Holy Spirit are “Persons” of him. All of those = Trinity Pope = leader of Catholic Church Priests, monks, nuns (Catholic Church)

33 How did Christianity start?
Christianity hadn’t become a religion yet until the fortieth century when Jesus‘s died. There are different typed of Christians they still have the same beliefs but different leaders. Jewish people used to be Christian. Christians go to church on Sunday to say thanks to God. God is 3 things Jesus, God, Holy Ghost. Today the bible is in hundreds of different languages. Everyday millions of Christians read the bible for advice, comfort and the proof of God’s love. Christianity throughout the Roman was the official religion. Christianity had the same rights as Jewish Christians they didn’t have to become Jews first. Jesus’s followers believe that Jesus rose up from the dead. Jesus lived in Judea. Followed teachings of J.C. = Christians J.C. had 12 main followers aka disciples Spread the word of his father, God. Eventually became official religion in Ancient Rome.

34 Islam

35 What do Muslims believe
one god = Allah Allah = eternal, knows & created everything, caring, merciful Humans should worship Allah, free will Should live certain way = niyyah Good life = Heaven bad life = hell Allah sent prophets Prophet = messenger from god, tells how people should live Have been 124,000 prophets over 1000’s or yrs 1st prophet = Adam, Lst prophet = Muhammad = important Church = Mosque holy book = Qur’an

36 What do Muslims believe? (continued)
Pillars of Islam = 5 basic duties 1 = say the Shahadah Shahadah = first & last words of Muslim Shahadah = Allah only god, Muhammad is messenger 2 = pray 5 tms a day 3 = give zakat ($ 2 charity) 4 = famin fast during mth of Ramadan in daylight 5 = go to Makkah Mecca

37 Moslems important text or books
Qu’ran or Koran most of Islamic festival most of law in middle age have lots of philisophy words Hadith (?) most of Moslems important text

38 Moslems important text or books
most of law in middle age important text 15 volumes have lots of philisophy words

39 The Start of Islam (Muhammad)
Started receiving messages for Allah in 610 First preached Islam Allah spoke through Angel Gabriel to Mohammad Considered the holy man His teachings recorded in Koran The seal of the prophets The last prophet Died in 632

40 The Start of Islam (Location)
Once kicked out of Mecca by powerful people Muhammad and his apprentices settled in Medina Army led by Muhammad came back and conquered Mecca Empire now stretched from Atlantic Ocean to borders of India Main religion in Middle East and Africa

41 The Start of Islam (Beliefs)
Similar to Judaism and Christianity Believe in one God Respects Abraham as a prophet like Jesus Look upon Jerusalem as a holy city

42 How do Muslims practice their religion?
1) Pray 5 times per day (dawn, early afternoon, late afternoon, after sunset, nightfall) 2) Face “Kaaba” in Holy City of Mecca when praying 3) Before praying must wash hands, arms, feet, face = “Wudu” 4) Before washing announce intentions to pray (niyyah) 5) If no water = hands/feet on sand/stone/dust to clean 6) Pray w/ series of movements = Rak’ah 7) Pray with 33/99 beads = each w/ name/meaning 8) Prayer led by “imam” = Qu’ran expert 9) Prayers said anywhere if (preferably) clean + quiet 10) Friday = holiday = to Mosque (“place to bow down”)

43 Who are their god/gods religious leaders
Allah=God 1st prophet was Adam Last prophet was Muhammad Respect Abraham/Moses/Jesus Started with Hashim The Khalifas were the first to lead Islam Early Khalifas=simple men First four Khalifas were men who had been the prophets closest friends Muhammad=most imortant religious leader to Muslims Muhammad= ce

44 Jibril told Muhammad he was the last prophet
Muhammad received massages messages from Allah Muhammad married to 8 wife's Sufis more spiritual (?) Imams=Islamic thinker or leader (of mosque) Imams=names of famous scholars Imams=to describe Khalifas

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