2Buddhist sacred text and teachings . Triptaka/ palicanon is a sacred text that mean three basketsIt uses 130,000 wood blocks .Basket 1 = vinaya pitaka /basket of discipline.Basket 2 = sutta pitaka /basket of discourse.Basket 3 = abhidhamma pitaka\ basket of metaphysicsIt was often stored in baskets.Basket 1 = over 200 debates on realigns belief and percepts of monks and nuns/ explains how Buddha chose them.Basket 2= over 10,000 sayings of Buddha and over and teaches inner peace and self control.Basket 3 = teachings of Buddha.Written on palm leaves originally. Sacred text called sutra.Monks study scriptures everyday.At first none of his teaching were wrote downWhen he died they wanted to remember his teachingOnly some of his followers could write.Only his closest follower could be allowed to write his teachings.Piers
3What do Buddhists believe? Do not believe in godBuddhists believe in karma, deities, and bodhisattvasDeities: supernatural beings that create rain, good crops, wealth, children, and protectionBodhisattvas: enlightened people who postpone nirvana to help others achieve NirvanaKarma: a belief that your actions determine your next life.Good karma helps you achieve enlightenmentMust achieve enlightenment to pass on to nirvanaIf enlightenment is not achieved you are reborn into one of six realmsYour karma determines which realm you will be reborn intoBy Alex B.
4BUDDHISM How did this religion start? More than 25hundred years ago, there was an Indian prince named Siddhartha Gotama. GautamaHe was raised in a very rich and influential family,He thought he couldn’t find the peace in Hindu.He studied and worked on ideas of salvation.Buddha created founded Buddhism after studying for yearsHe created Buddhism and his name became Budda.Now there are 365 million people that follows Buddhism.Lucy
5Who are the Buddhist gods and religious leaders? No God-Siddhartha Gautama-Indian prince-married princess yasodhara-rags for clothes shaved head-Buddha’s first followers- 5 holy men-Spent 7 yrs together w/ followers-First group name-sangha-Beginning-no women-45 yrs Buddha travelled & spread teachings-Buddhism is still growing-Emperor Ashoka-not like violence-became Buddhist-E.A. sent monk/nuns to teach Buddhism
7How Do They Practice Their Religion? Can be practiced in many different waysSome Hindus pray everydaySome Hindus don’t pray to anyoneFree to worship in their own wayHindus worship Brahman, Vishnu , Shiva and Shiva’s wifeVishnu and Shiva are the most popular godsBrahman is universal and everythingHindus worship at home, temples, religions and other types of buildingsBrahman can be translated to godNothing exists if Brahman isn’t in itBy: Adam Huang
8What religious text does Hinduism follow Holy Books:beliefs written in Vedas, Puranas , Manu smirti, and Bhagavad-GitaWritten over 5,000 years agoMany holy books writtenMost written in SanskritAbout different subjects-praise gods-worshipHoly book divided into two books shruti, smirtiShruti= heardSmirti= rememberRig-Vedas= oldest sacred writings
9What religious text does Hinduism follow Originated 3,000 B,CPut into writing = 1,000 B,COldest religious writings still used be living religionVedas brought into India 1,500 B,CContain best known storiesHave legends/mythsGuidelines to social/religious behaviorStories used hero’s /villainsEpics important to Hiduizing IndiaVast sacred sites /holy cities
10How did Hinduism start? Thousands of years ago in India Began about 4,000 years agoIndus valley region invaded by AryansPractices of 2 main groups put together:People of Indus valleyPeople of the Aryans of PersiaAryans brought their beliefs with themIndus valley & Aryans beliefs came together
11How did Hinduism start? continued… Started long ago, no one really knows how it startedIt has no founderHinduism has spread all around the world1 of the oldest religionsDeveloped gradually over a period of time~Sarah Traub
13What is religious textThe holy book has 1430 pages (Guru Granth Sahib)The holy book is written in GurumukhiIt takes 48 hours to read the bookSome of the text in the book is sungThe book is only brought out in the morningThey read scriptures in their templesA man waves chari over book as being readNine gurus remembered for contribution to bookSikhs hold a read in for guru nanaks b-dayThey teach of the nine gurus in the holy bookThe book is treated like a human
14Who are their Gods/Goddesses/religious Leaders One God- Almighty and eternal- Made universe4) Good- Created males and females- Is not male or female3)Guru = Religious and wise teacher2)First Sikh guru = Guru Nanak- Was born in small village on flat green plain known as Punjab- Was born into a Hindu family12) Was a thoughtful person- Deeply troubled by divisions between Hindus and Muslims- Received messages from God- Telling him to go out and teach people how to follow simple faith- Taught people trying to lead good lives, pray and meditate- Made God’s teachings into poems- After Guru Nanak died, chose guru Angad to take placeWent west to Makah and east to Assam20) Gurus were chosen for their belief by Kosta
15How did Sikhism start? 500 yrs. Old Originated in Punjab, India 10 Gurus1st Guru = Guru NanakGuru = Holy man/teacherNanak born 1469 in Hindu familyGod says Nanak is leader/teacher of peopleGod tells Nanak to teach people follow simple faithNanak goes on 4 journeys to teach belief to others
16How did Sikhism start?Nanak teaches ceremonies/rituals are not path to GodPeople made to believe one God = creator, present everywherePeople work hard w/ honesty, serve community, not gather great wealthWake up early, meditate and bathe everyday
17How do Sikhs practice their religion? They follow the 5 K’sThe 5 K’s are kesha(uncut beard and hair) , kangha(comb),kara(steel bracelet),kirpin(sword)Get up early, bathe, meditate and do god’s willPerform Sewa (3 types: give time and energy to help people, provide service to others, and talk to others about god)Guru Granth Sahib opened at dawn (prakash) closed at dusk (sukhasan)Stand humbly in front of Guru Granth recite ardas (prayer of supplication)Attend gurdwara (place of worship),no shoes inside and eat after service.Drink armit (special mix of water and sugar)They pray whenever have the chance or when doing something else.
18How do Sikhs practice their religion? 1) Sikh temple/house = “Gurdwara”, go to the “Gurdwara” on Sunday2) At temple, listen to “Granthi”3) “Granthi” = person reading guru“Granth” sahib.4) Guru Granth” sahib = prayer book.5) Remove shoes, wash feet and hands when enter “Gurdwara”7) Men and women sit separately.6) They sing to God + pray8) There are 5 k’s.9) K number 1 = un cut hair = no shave and no cutting hair.10) Hair should be clean and comes 2 times a day.
19How do Sikhs practice their religion? 11)K number 2 kanga = small wooden comb to keep hair in place.12)K number 3 = kirpan = short sword13)Kirpan = fight evil, only defence, never attack.14)K number 4 = Kara15)Kara Plain steel bracelet worn on the right wrist.16)Kara Reminds Sikhs = one god and one truth.17)K number 5 = Kachhehra18)Kachhehra are short pants worn as under wear.19)Turban most male Sikhs and female Sikhs wear one.20)Cloth 16ft. long = sign of power.
21What religious text does this religions follow? Why is it important? Torah is about 197feet (60 meters) long unwound.Scroll of the Torah is called sefer torah.Each copy is written by hand by specially trained scribe.The scribe uses special ink and a quill pen.A sefer Torah takes more than a year to complete.Material used for a scroll is parchment, not paper.A special pointer called a yed is used to follow the world as the scroll is read in the synagogue.The complete scriptures are called the tenakh = Holy BookThe five book of the torah are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.They are sometimes known as the five book of Moses.The books are the history of the beginning of the Jewish people.The first is the Torah, the book of teaching.aka the 5 Books of MosesThe second is the Nevi’im, the book of the prophets.The third is the Ketuvim, the books of writings.Studying the Torah is important to Judaism.Inspired by God to give massages messages to the Jews.
22How do they practice Judaism? Special celebrations to do with ageAfter reading in congregation, B.M. person called up to torah to read final versesOnce reading done, B.M. person reads chapter from prophets (related to week’s reading)Chapter from prophets = haftorahBrit Milah – circumcision for 8 days old boy, then is blessed13 years old boy = old enough for adult religious responsibilities (bar mitzvah)Before B.M., boy studies Hebrew, reading, singing + portion of torah and p. from propetsGirl = Bat mitzvah for 12 year olds (same procedure)SabbathLight 2 candles every Friday night marking start of Sabbath = ShabbatShabbat ends nightfall SaturdayFriday set table with white cloth + best silverware + 2 candlesMeals and Rules for EatingLaw of Kashruth don’t let Jews take in bloodFish with scales or skin + fins allowedChallah = braided bread always on table before mealsBefore meal father prays with wine to give thanksSay grace before + after eating
23How do they practice Judaism? Congregation and bibles Go to synagogue on Saturdays (and listen to rabbi)Everyone follows reading in own bible during congregationCongregation doesn’t need Rabbi to lead prayers + read TorahRabbi = J. teacher, preacher, + judge of J. lawBible = ChumashChumash = “the five” for five books of MosesWomen sometimes sit separately from men during congregationKids sit with anyone during congregationPrayers and prayer booksJ.s believe see themselves clearly when talk + listen to God (Pray)Better to pray togetherAlmost all J. prayers use we, us, our + youSometimes pray with prayer shawlPrayer shawl = box put on head with strapP.S. contains some verses of Torah read Torah
24Who are their god/gods/religious leaders 2 important leaders (prophets) Abraham and MosesAbraham BCEAbraham born in Ur in BabyloniaAbraham founding father of Jewish nationAbraham had 2 sons Isaac and IshmaelJews believe Isaac is ancestor of JewsMoses BCEMoses born in EgyptGod sent prophets to earth such as MosesGod said to Moses how he wanted Israelites to behaveMoses most important but Jews don’t have single leaderSaul first king of IsraelAjay
25What do Jews Believe in? Tenakh = Jewish Holy Book God. Judaism based off Torah.Torah most important part of Jewish Bible.Torah= “Teaching” in Hebrew.Jews chosen receive gods Torah.God.One eternal, invisible, almighty god.Good deeds rewarded greatly in Heaven.Will send a Messiah bring Perfect World.Controls all Nature and History.Lives forever.Knows everything.Is everywhere.Has no physical form.Loves the Jewish people.Provided scriptures & laws everyone must obey.Sent prophets to Earth. (Prophet= A person who speaks for God)Will send the MessiahGave Moses 10 commandments/basic laws.(but altogether 613 Commandments)Controls nature and History
26What do Jews believe in? By Zarley Zalusky The six Days of Creation (i.e. the world was created in 6 days.)First day of creation God created Day and Night.Second day of creation God created Earth and Heaven.Third day of creation God created seas, land, and everything that grows from ground.Fourth day of creation god created the sun, moon, and stars.Fifth day of creation God created the fish and birds.Sixth and last day of creation God created all land, animals, and people.Jews believe world will end one dayBy Zarley Zalusky
28What religious text does Christianity follow? -Bible :Christianity's holy book. -Bible: collection of 66 divided int0 2 parts.-1st part :Old Testament(include Jewish holy book), 2nd part: New Testament.-Jesus+ 1st part of Bible= Jewish(teach Old Testament).-Old Testament=>how Jewish people learned what god is like.-New Testament=>story of Christianity in early times.-New Testament : Jesus teaching.-New Testament : reading the Bible shows Jesus teachings and his faith in life.
29What religious text does Christianity follow? -Jesus = son of God.-It took centuries : complete the Bible.-Bible contain complete of Jewish Bible.-Bible= compiles years after Jesus death.-Bible translated in +2,000 different languages.-Bible is not written by Jesus.
30What does Christians believe? - one god=three “people”=trinity- god the father, the son (Jesus) and the Holy Spirit-Holy Spirit=power of god- god the father is eternal and creator of universe- most complete demonstration of god=Jesus=god the son- Jesus=Messiah (someone who is anointed or chosen by god)- Jesus=completely god and man- Jesus has special relationship with god- believe Jesus (died nailed to cross) brought back 3 days later by god=resurrection- resurrection shows death not the end- possible for sins be forgiven (important part of teaching)- Jesus saves them from results of sins- stopped them from getting closer to god (their savior)- possible to work ship worship god and power to live life the way god wants- they should follow Jesus’ example=love everyone- god loves everyone=should be kind and loving and forgiving- get rewarded in heaven for good deeds- whole live in sight of god
31How do Christians practice their religion? - Go to churcha.Listen to a priest talk about Godb.read the biblec.study the bibled.sing songs called hymnse.carry their prayer books- praya.= act of faithb.tell God of how they feel and ask for helpc.can pray any where they wantby Justin
32What gods/religious leaders are there in Christianity? Leaders = Jesus, Pope of Catholic Church.His parents were Joseph and Mary.Born in Stable in Bethlehem.Named "Jesus” “Joshua” or “Messiah” by cultures.Baptized by John the Baptist.Was Jewish.Proclaimed “King of Jews”Jesus = Messiah = Bad to Roman authorities/Jewish leaders.Jesus accused of Blasphemy.Punished to Crucifixion.Died of Crucifixion.Authorities killed all early priests for disobeying Judaism.God the Father/Son/Holy Spirit are “Persons” of him.All of those = TrinityPope = leader of Catholic ChurchPriests, monks, nuns (Catholic Church)
33How did Christianity start? Christianity hadn’t become a religion yet until the fortieth century when Jesus‘s died.There are different typed of Christians they still have the same beliefs but different leaders.Jewish people used to be Christian.Christians go to church on Sunday to say thanks to God.God is 3 things Jesus, God, Holy Ghost.Today the bible is in hundreds of different languages.Everyday millions of Christians read the bible for advice, comfort and the proof of God’s love.Christianity throughout the Roman was the official religion.Christianity had the same rights as Jewish Christians they didn’t have to become Jews first.Jesus’s followers believe that Jesus rose up from the dead.Jesus lived in Judea.Followed teachings of J.C. = ChristiansJ.C. had 12 main followers aka disciplesSpread the word of his father, God.Eventually became official religion in Ancient Rome.
35What do Muslims believe one god = AllahAllah = eternal, knows & created everything, caring, mercifulHumans should worship Allah, free willShould live certain way = niyyahGood life = Heaven bad life = hellAllah sent prophetsProphet = messenger from god, tells how people should liveHave been 124,000 prophets over 1000’s or yrs1st prophet = Adam, Lst prophet = Muhammad = importantChurch = Mosqueholy book = Qur’an
36What do Muslims believe? (continued) Pillars of Islam = 5 basic duties1 = say the ShahadahShahadah = first & last words of MuslimShahadah = Allah only god, Muhammad is messenger2 = pray 5 tms a day3 = give zakat ($ 2 charity)4 = famin fast during mth of Ramadan in daylight5 = go to Makkah Mecca
37Moslems important text or books Qu’ran or Koranmost of Islamic festivalmost of law in middle agehave lots of philisophy wordsHadith (?)most of Moslemsimportant text
38Moslems important text or books most of law in middle ageimportant text15 volumeshave lots of philisophy words
39The Start of Islam (Muhammad) Started receiving messages for Allah in 610First preached IslamAllah spoke through Angel Gabriel to MohammadConsidered the holy manHis teachings recorded in KoranThe seal of the prophetsThe last prophetDied in 632
40The Start of Islam (Location) Once kicked out of Mecca by powerful peopleMuhammad and his apprentices settled in MedinaArmy led by Muhammad came back and conquered MeccaEmpire now stretched from Atlantic Ocean to borders of IndiaMain religion in Middle East and Africa
41The Start of Islam (Beliefs) Similar to Judaism and ChristianityBelieve in one GodRespects Abraham as a prophet like JesusLook upon Jerusalem as a holy city
42How do Muslims practice their religion? 1) Pray 5 times per day (dawn, early afternoon, late afternoon, after sunset, nightfall)2) Face “Kaaba” in Holy City of Mecca when praying3) Before praying must wash hands, arms, feet, face =“Wudu”4) Before washing announce intentions to pray (niyyah)5) If no water = hands/feet on sand/stone/dust to clean6) Pray w/ series of movements = Rak’ah7) Pray with 33/99 beads = each w/ name/meaning8) Prayer led by “imam” = Qu’ran expert9) Prayers said anywhere if (preferably) clean + quiet10) Friday = holiday = to Mosque (“place to bow down”)
43Who are their god/gods religious leaders Allah=God1st prophet was AdamLast prophet was MuhammadRespect Abraham/Moses/JesusStarted with HashimThe Khalifas were the first to lead IslamEarly Khalifas=simple menFirst four Khalifas were men who had been the prophets closest friendsMuhammad=most imortant religious leader to MuslimsMuhammad= ce
44Jibril told Muhammad he was the last prophet Muhammad received massages messages from AllahMuhammad married to 8 wife'sSufis more spiritual (?)Imams=Islamic thinker or leader (of mosque)Imams=names of famous scholarsImams=to describe Khalifas