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FOCUS GROUPS. Why Do Bullies Live? by anon they say im weird i say you can't have normal in this world they say they will get me i say you'll have to.

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Presentation on theme: "FOCUS GROUPS. Why Do Bullies Live? by anon they say im weird i say you can't have normal in this world they say they will get me i say you'll have to."— Presentation transcript:

1 FOCUS GROUPS

2 Why Do Bullies Live? by anon they say im weird i say you can't have normal in this world they say they will get me i say you'll have to catch me first they say shut up i say make me they get the bat i shut up I Survived by Rachel Williams I survived school I survived high school I survived each day My life was hard But I survived I survived every week I survived each year I survived your torment My life was hard But I survived I survived the problems you didn't know about I survived the pain God inflicted on my family I survived the pain you put me through I survived But could you?

3 Focus groups

4 Characteristics of Focus Groups There are six to twelve participants. Facilitator and at least one note taker. Tape-recorded, and other supplies may be needed Group represents a community of interest with some diversity Ideally the participants are unknown to each other. The aim to gain insights into the attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and feelings of participants. Consensus not necessary A small set of predetermined, sequenced, open-ended questions is used

5 Advantages of Focus Groups It produces real-life data in a social environment – this gives it high face validity. Flexible, low cost, simple in relation to other methods. Speedy results – easy to summarise It’s a very useful method for triangulating research data Long history of use in areas where good information means $$$ in the bank.

6 Limitations of Focus Groups Whom the focus group represents can be difficult to substantiate. Two representative groups might have very different views Opinions expressed in groups can vary enormously from those privately expressed Getting a representative group can be a difficult and demanding task Facilitator needs special skills, to ensure depth and openness of discussion. Data can be difficult to analyse – sometimes the results seem obvious, lacking in depth. The environment of the focus group can influence the outcome - it needs to be pleasant and comfortable

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8 Participant preparation Tell them what it’s about beforehand Put a lot of creative energy into the topic. Manage the group’s expectations - koha, transport support, refreshments, activities, being heard, information use Use informality: relaxed playfulness, if professional seriousness of purpose The physical surroundings: low key, comfortable, safe, avoid desks, give choices

9 How do we create resilience and stop bullying in our communities?

10 1 out of 4 kids is bullied or abused by another youth. 1 out of 5 admits to being a bully.

11 Physical bullying

12 Verbal Bullying – teasing, etc

13 Relationship Bullying – excluding, etc

14 Cyber-bullying link link

15 There are many different types of Bullying Behaviour: Physical Verbal Written Social Racist Isolation Homophobic Extortion Coercion Cyber-bullying Intimidation

16 Bystanders Part of the problem, often not the solution

17 Workplace Bullying

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20 How do we create resilience and stop bullying in our communities?

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27 Exploring change in Ghana

28 Structure of the Focus Group Use the same model as for semi-structured interviews – No more than 6 major questions Descriptive questions Evaluative questions Resolving/solution questions Confirming questions – a small number of forced choice questions at the end or at key points of the focus group Demographic questions

29 Creating Questions Larry Davidson: “Strategies for Interviewing” Begin with descriptive questions. Not asking for assessments (though you may get them). You are after a rich description of experience. Move to simple evaluations. Likes and dislikes, and what is behind these. Then get to major evaluations, after the experiential groundwork has been done.

30 Creating Questions Next are solutions/resolutions. Finish on a hopeful note. Confirming questions. In focus groups key hypotheses can be checked with simple and direct questions. Demographic questions. What contexts influence the answers to the questions? Age, gender, culture, spiritual orientation, education, occupation and income?

31 Starting the focus group Encourage divergent thought. Make it a group. Have rounds, but avoid serial interview mode. Switch to discussion mode. Do not take over. Accept silence

32 The energy we want in focus groups

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34 Finishing off the focus group Solution/resolution question What will be the most important strategies to achieve these goals? Prompts Confirmation question (written and private) On 1-5 scale (1=poor, 3= adequate, 5=excellent) how useful/interesting is this playcentre course (two separate ratings). Please add a comment Demographic questions: age, gender, culture. qualifications, employment, income, etc

35 Asking the “right questions”, in the “right way” An attitude of great interest without reinforcing any particular viewpoint. Avoid “That’s good,” and “Why?” - instead use “What’s that about...” Some of the best “questions” aren’t questions at all. No yes/no questions Attend to Non-verbal behaviour, spot congruence and contradictions, speak to it, name it, intensify it. Pay attention to what the people aren't saying

36 Non-directive probes Descriptive: Give me a [picture, description] of... Describe what it’s like to... Tell me what goes on when you... Tell me about... Tell me more about that... Think about a situation in which you …. Tell me about it. Explanatory: Explain to me.... Give me an example….. How might someone do that?... Involving: I’d like you all to [discuss, decide]... Ask each other to find out.... Let’s see, I haven’t heard from...

37 Non-directive probes Involving and summative: Somebody sum this all up... Let’s see [pause] I’m having trouble figuring out how I should word this I don’t think I'm getting it all. Here’s what I’ve got so far, tell me what I am missing or not getting correctly... I can’t seem to read the group’s reaction to that. Help me out. Summative: So, it sounds like you’re saying... So, the message you want me to get from that story is... Encouraging diversity: That’s helpful. Now let’s hear some different thoughts... Let’s hear a different perspective on this.

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42 Non-directive probes Encouraging: Say more.... Keep talking.... Don’t stop.... Just say anything that comes to mind... Who can build on this last idea? Reflecting conflict: You seem to have a lot of excitement and energy around that. Talk to me from the excitement... [I see in your face... I hear in your voice] something important, but I don’t know what it is... Boy, that got quite a rise out of everyone. What is everyone reacting to?... What’s bothering you?... How come the energy level of the group just went down?

43 Non-directive probes Getting practical: I’d like you to word it as an “I wish” or a “How to.”... Can someone turn that [wish, dream, request] into a reality? Does anyone know how to do it?... Let's turn this complaint into a problem... How can we solve it? Checking: How important is that concern?... Before we move on, let’s hear any burning thoughts that you have to get out... What am I not asking?

44 Projective Techniques. Ambiguous pictures: Imagine what the picture is about in relation to own past experience. Drawing. You can ask people to draw a their real/ideal WINZ office or counselling room Role Playing. Another technique is to get people to think laterally by wearing different “hats” (as a client, caregiver, service leader, member of the public)

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46 Guided Fantasies or Visualizations. “It’s You have completed your degree... You are working when a student colleague and friend whom you haven’t seen for three years visits... What are you going to be talking about?” Word Association and Sentence Completion. The most worrying thing about the Research Methods course is... I’d convince people to change their minds by saying….

47 Debrief

48 Using graphic organ- isers in a focus group

49 Using graphic organisers in a focus group

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53 Steps to Improve Validity and Reliability Prolong the processes of data gathering on site to insure the accuracy of the findings Employ the process of “triangulation” - use a variety of data sources as opposed to relying solely upon one avenue of observation. Collect referential materials - complement the research information with additional document support. Engage in peer consultation - establish validity through pooled judgment of peers

54 Creating community Totnes Transition Streets (8.38)Transition Streets What’s the alternative to consumption? Community. Local food, local support systems, local fun, local creativity, local economy, local jobs. Creating community at Unitec – Whānaungatanga, connection and the Shave for a cure collaborates with cure JM event Using a focus group to explore whether this event engages with whānaungatanga


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