312,000B.C. to 2,000 B.C.Agricultural communities with some hunting and gatheringClimate wetter, warmMost of North - lakes and MarshesMost Central – 1 big lakeSilk already been discoveredPainted and Black PotteryBury dead face downFired bones to see into futureNeolithic China
4Xia DynastyB.C.Thought to be mythOnly in oral historyEvidence found 1959 in city of YanshiAgrarian (farmers)Bronze weapons and PotteryRuling acted as shamansDramatic rituals to confirm power
5B.C.First true dynastyKing had much powerPolytheisticHuman sacrificeBronze weapons, fittings for chariots, worship vesselsDescent passed from eldest bro to youngest broWriting invented (found on oracle bones, bronze and stone)Many Public works = Many PeopleShang Dynasty
6Zhou DynastyB.C.Western and Eastern“Mandate of Heaven”Took over because Shang were morally degeneratedChanged govt. to feudal system (landowners vassals to king)Descent became patriarchalBanned human sacrificePolytheistic (sun/stars)Second half called “Warring State Period”“One Hundred Schools Period” – Cultural floweringConfucianism, Taoism, Legalism(++)Laws written downMuch poetry/proseMoney economyPopulation explosion!!
8Qin Shi Huangdi unified China for first time Ruled only 37 years 221 – 207 B.C.Qin Shi Huangdi unified China for first timeRuled only 37 yearsImplemented Legalism (rewards and punishments)State had absolute control over peopleGroup responsibilityStandardized language, writing, currency, measurements and axle lengthMANY Public works (Great Wall, roads, irrigation canals, palace, Terra cotta Army (6,000 soldiers)Shi Huangdi not popular!Public works/taxes great burdenNobility transplanted, all power taken awayWritings of great philosophers burnedBanned all books advocating other forms of governmentExecuted 400 opponentsQin Dynasty
9Continued to rule like Qin but gradually incorporated Confucian ideals Han Dynasty206B.C. -220A.D.Western and EasternContinued to rule like Qin but gradually incorporated Confucian idealsMain Goal was unification of ChinaMuch expansionSilk Road developedEducation more importantEncyclopedias writtenMillions died in fightingLeft land for peasants and freedom of debt as lenders died!Economic and Political struggles arosePeasants revolted (begun by Yellow Turbans)3 kingdoms emerged
10Kingdoms grew out of the 3 chief economic areas The ThreeKingdoms220A.D. – 265A.D.Disunity and civil warKingdoms grew out of the 3 chief economic areasBuddhism began to spreadTea DiscoveredPorcelain developedTs’ao Ts’ao made great impactUsed other cultures “barbarians” in armyAssimilation among people
11Chin Dynasty 265A.D. – 420A.D. Eastern and Western Ssu-ma Yen started DynastyWas an assimilated barbarianReunified China againNever a stable empireDeclared armies disbanded and all arms returnedSome sold theirs instead to neighboring countriesFatal mistake!Chin defeated by HunsDisunity continued
12Another lengthy period of disunity Dynasties ofNorth andSouth420A.D. – 588A.D.Another lengthy period of disunityN. Dynasties = N. Wei, E. Wei, West Wei, N. Qi, N. Zhou,S. Dynasties = Song, Qi, Liang, ChenBuddhism flourished (in N. especially)Tenets appealed to country peopleOffered hope in Buddhism’s reincarnation to a better life if one lived their current life well.Meant nobles who oppressed them would come back to a harder life
14Accomplished many things Sui Dynasty580A.D. – 618A.D.China united againAccomplished many thingsGrand Canal extendedBuilt granaries around capitalsFortified The Great WallReconstructed 2 capitals near Yellow RiverConfucianism regained popularity
15Tax based on # of people in family, not how much land T’angDynasty618A.D. – 907A.D.T’ang CodeContinuous scale of penaltiesDegree based on amount of time that would be spent mourning if the person diedTax based on # of people in family, not how much landRice production rapidly increasedExpanded empire to IranOnly female empress (Wu Chou)Finances put in orderTea became popularWarfare and internal struggles made peasant life difficultPeasant uprisings led to T’ang’s fall
16Buddhism experienced sharp decline The FiveDynasties907A.D. – 960 A.D.4 important advancesTrade increasingly important, especially teaTranslucent porcelain developedMovable typeBooks became readily availableAllowed more people to become educatedPaper money inventedFoot binding beganWidely practiced-rich and poorFew did not-boat women of Kuang-tung, aboriginals of S.W., non-Chinese groups surrounding ChinaBuddhism experienced sharp decline
17Education and examination system became central to upper class North and SouthSong Dynasties960A.D. – 1279A.D.Great advancesUsed gunpowder as weaponFirst autopsy performedNeo-Confucianism developed“Pursuit of the Way” encouraged nobles to live up to Confucian ideals by being less selfish.Education and examination system became central to upper classBest ships in worldCarried 500 men, 4 decks, 6 masts, 12 sailsUsed charts and compassesMost technologically and culturally advanced people in the worldDiplomacy favored instead of fighting
19Yuan Dynasty1279A.D. – 1368A.D.1st time China ruled by foreigners-MongolsGenghis Khan conquered, but grandson, Kublai Khan became emperorCulturally very different –made ruling very difficultExcessive spending & trade restrictions severely depleted China economically.No trade out, but outside could come inMarco Polo experienced friendlier China than the natives<100years China impoverishedGoverning duties led to lax military trainingNo interest in holding onto an impoverished country.
20Founder (Hongwu) was peasant Created laws that improved peasant life MingDynasty1368A.D. – 1644A.D.Founder (Hongwu) was peasantCreated laws that improved peasant lifeLow taxesGranaries stocked (famine)Maintained dikesGreat cultural developmentNovels written (still read today)Blue and white porcelainEncyclopedias writtenDictionaries writtenReduced # of Chinese charactersBuilt more of and repaired Great WallMoney always a problem, went back to copper coins but counterfeiting a problemZheng He made 7 diplomatic expeditionsAfter last voyage records destroyed and shipbuilding restricted to small shipsInternal power struggles led to downfall
212nd time ruled by foreigners – the Manchu QingDynasty1644A.D. – 1911A.D.Last Dynasty2nd time ruled by foreigners – the ManchuFirst 3 emperors= peace and prosperity. Peace=growthTaxes low but Public works maintainedInternation trade grewEuropean missionaries allowed. Later outlawed when Christian sailors looted the Chinese coastBoarders expandedInstituted changes in dressMen = Shave heads and wear queues. Also wear Manchu cothesWomen = No change in clothes but outlawed foot binding. Impossible to enforce. 1688A.D. ruling withdrawnWest’s impact felt for first timeBritish imported opiumMuch Chinese $$ used to pay for opiumMany became addicted1839A.D. opium trade abolishedBOXER REBELLIONChina forced to sign treaty-Hong Kong and trade rights. Virtually turned China into a British colony.
22Internal rebellions weakened China QingDynasty(Cont.)Internal rebellions weakened ChinaJapan’s Westernization meant China needed to buffer for attackEmperors were younger and younger – power in hands of empresses and other advisorsTzu His – empress who held the most power of all empressesUneducatedOpposed all reformReformers executedBefore death placed 2 year old on thrown!After 2 years Republic of China arose.No more dynasties