Presentation on theme: "China’s Dynasties. I. Ancient China Neolithic China 12,000B.C. to 2,000 B.C. Agricultural communities with some hunting and gathering Climate wetter,"— Presentation transcript:
I. Ancient China
Neolithic China 12,000B.C. to 2,000 B.C. Agricultural communities with some hunting and gathering Climate wetter, warm Most of North - lakes and Marshes Most Central – 1 big lake Silk already been discovered Painted and Black Pottery Bury dead face down Fired bones to see into future
Xia Dynasty B.C. Thought to be myth Only in oral history Evidence found 1959 in city of Yanshi Agrarian (farmers) Bronze weapons and Pottery Ruling acted as shamans Dramatic rituals to confirm power
Shang Dynasty B.C. First true dynasty King had much power Polytheistic Human sacrifice Bronze weapons, fittings for chariots, worship vessels Descent passed from eldest bro to youngest bro Writing invented (found on oracle bones, bronze and stone) Many Public works = Many People
Zhou Dynasty B.C. Western and Eastern “Mandate of Heaven” Took over because Shang were morally degenerated Changed govt. to feudal system (landowners vassals to king) Descent became patriarchal Banned human sacrifice Polytheistic (sun/stars) Second half called “Warring State Period” “One Hundred Schools Period” – Cultural flowering Confucianism, Taoism, Legalism(++) Laws written down Much poetry/prose Money economy Population explosion!!
2. Early Imperial China
Qin Dynasty 221 – 207 B.C. Qin Shi Huangdi unified China for first time Ruled only 37 years Implemented Legalism (rewards and punishments) State had absolute control over people Group responsibility Standardized language, writing, currency, measurements and axle length MANY Public works (Great Wall, roads, irrigation canals, palace, Terra cotta Army (6,000 soldiers) Shi Huangdi not popular! –Public works/taxes great burden –Nobility transplanted, all power taken away –Writings of great philosophers burned –Banned all books advocating other forms of government –Executed 400 opponents
Han Dynasty 206B.C. -220A.D. Western and Eastern Continued to rule like Qin but gradually incorporated Confucian ideals Main Goal was unification of China Much expansion Silk Road developed Education more important Encyclopedias written Millions died in fighting –Left land for peasants and freedom of debt as lenders died! Economic and Political struggles arose Peasants revolted (begun by Yellow Turbans) 3 kingdoms emerged
The Three Kingdoms 220A.D. – 265A.D. Disunity and civil war Kingdoms grew out of the 3 chief economic areas Buddhism began to spread Tea Discovered Porcelain developed Ts’ao Ts’ao made great impact –Used other cultures “barbarians” in army –Assimilation among people
Chin Dynasty 265A.D. – 420A.D. Eastern and Western Ssu-ma Yen started Dynasty –Was an assimilated barbarian Reunified China again Never a stable empire Declared armies disbanded and all arms returned Some sold theirs instead to neighboring countries Fatal mistake! Chin defeated by Huns Disunity continued
Dynasties of North and South 420A.D. – 588A.D. Another lengthy period of disunity –N. Dynasties = N. Wei, E. Wei, West Wei, N. Qi, N. Zhou, –S. Dynasties = Song, Qi, Liang, Chen Buddhism flourished (in N. especially) –Tenets appealed to country people –Offered hope in Buddhism’s reincarnation to a better life if one lived their current life well. –Meant nobles who oppressed them would come back to a harder life
3. Classical Imperial China
Sui Dynasty 580A.D. – 618A.D. China united again Accomplished many things –Grand Canal extended –Built granaries around capitals –Fortified The Great Wall –Reconstructed 2 capitals near Yellow River –Confucianism regained popularity
T’ang Dynasty 618A.D. – 907A.D. T’ang Code –Continuous scale of penalties –Degree based on amount of time that would be spent mourning if the person died Tax based on # of people in family, not how much land Rice production rapidly increased Expanded empire to Iran Only female empress (Wu Chou) Finances put in order Tea became popular Warfare and internal struggles made peasant life difficult Peasant uprisings led to T’ang’s fall
The Five Dynasties 907A.D. – 960 A.D. 4 important advances –Trade increasingly important, especially tea –Translucent porcelain developed –Movable type Books became readily available Allowed more people to become educated –Paper money invented Foot binding began –Widely practiced-rich and poor –Few did not-boat women of Kuang-tung, aboriginals of S.W., non-Chinese groups surrounding China Buddhism experienced sharp decline
North and South Song Dynasties 960A.D. – 1279A.D. Great advances –Used gunpowder as weapon –First autopsy performed –Neo-Confucianism developed “Pursuit of the Way” encouraged nobles to live up to Confucian ideals by being less selfish. Education and examination system became central to upper class Best ships in world –Carried 500 men, 4 decks, 6 masts, 12 sails –Used charts and compasses Most technologically and culturally advanced people in the world Diplomacy favored instead of fighting
4. Late Imperial China
Yuan Dynasty 1279A.D. – 1368A.D. 1 st time China ruled by foreigners-Mongols Genghis Khan conquered, but grandson, Kublai Khan became emperor Culturally very different –made ruling very difficult Excessive spending & trade restrictions severely depleted China economically. No trade out, but outside could come in Marco Polo experienced friendlier China than the natives <100years China impoverished Governing duties led to lax military training No interest in holding onto an impoverished country.
Ming Dynasty 1368A.D. – 1644A.D. Founder (Hongwu) was peasant Created laws that improved peasant life –Low taxes –Granaries stocked (famine) –Maintained dikes Great cultural development –Novels written (still read today) –Blue and white porcelain –Encyclopedias written –Dictionaries written –Reduced # of Chinese characters –Built more of and repaired Great Wall Money always a problem, went back to copper coins but counterfeiting a problem Zheng He made 7 diplomatic expeditions After last voyage records destroyed and shipbuilding restricted to small ships Internal power struggles led to downfall
Qing Dynasty 1644A.D. – 1911A.D. Last Dynasty 2 nd time ruled by foreigners – the Manchu First 3 emperors= peace and prosperity. Peace=growth –Taxes low but Public works maintained –Internation trade grew –European missionaries allowed. Later outlawed when Christian sailors looted the Chinese coast –Boarders expanded Instituted changes in dress –Men = Shave heads and wear queues. Also wear Manchu cothes –Women = No change in clothes but outlawed foot binding. Impossible to enforce. 1688A.D. ruling withdrawn West’s impact felt for first time –British imported opium –Much Chinese $$ used to pay for opium –Many became addicted –1839A.D. opium trade abolished –BOXER REBELLION –China forced to sign treaty-Hong Kong and trade rights. Virtually turned China into a British colony.
Qing Dynasty (Cont.) Internal rebellions weakened China Japan’s Westernization meant China needed to buffer for attack Emperors were younger and younger – power in hands of empresses and other advisors Tzu His – empress who held the most power of all empresses –Uneducated –Opposed all reform –Reformers executed –Before death placed 2 year old on thrown! –After 2 years Republic of China arose. No more dynasties