Presentation on theme: "Complex sentences. General features of the acquisition process The earliest grammatical patterns are formally simplified. The earliest utterances tend."— Presentation transcript:
General features of the acquisition process The earliest grammatical patterns are formally simplified. The earliest utterances tend to be lexically specific. Young children often memorize grammatical patterns. ‚Input frequency‘ seems to be an important determinant of language acquisition. Children do not just memorize the patterns they hear, they also analyze and organize the input data.
Tendencies From simple to complex From concrete to abstract From rote learning to system building
Complex sentences Two propositions/situations (1)You push it and it goes up. (2)I will come when it stops. Abstract semantic concepts (1)If he takes all of them I’m gonna beat him up. (2)I think daddy’s is over there.
Complex sentences Hierarchical relationship (1)Daddy saw that mommy was sleeping. (2)Sue knows how to do it. Control (1)Daddy makes me swim. (2)Daddy promised me to come. Order (1)If he takes all of them I’m gonna beat him up. (2)The picture I made is blue.
Data ChildrenAge rangeNumber of utterances Number of complex sentences Adam2;3-4;1046,4984,389 Sarah2;3-5;137,0212,496 Nina1;11-3;432,2122,545 Peter1;9-3;230,2561,746 Naomi1;8-3;514, Total1;8-5;1160,64311,978
Proportion of complex sentences
Non-finite complement clauses Wan Bobo.2;1 I wan a bottle.2;1 Want bag, Mommy.2;2 Want bag.2;2 I wan that.2;2 I wan Bobo.2;3 I wanna ride.2;3 I wanna ride my horse.2;3 I wan milk.2;4 I wan ride, ride… two doll.2;4
Non-finite complement clauses (i)modality V > manipulative V > cognition-utterance V (ii)NP-V-VP>NP-V-NP-VP (iii)bare infinitives >to-infinitives > wh-infinitives (iv)nonfinite complement >finite complement
Adverbial and coordinate clauses Additionand Contrastbut Conditionif Timewhen, since, after, while, before Causebecause, so
Adverbial and coordinate clauses (1)We will stay at home, when it rains. (2)When it rains, we will stay at home. (3)Mary works in the library and Peter is a psychiatrist. (4)*And Peter is a psychiatrist Mary works in the library.
Previous literature Children understand the semantic relationships before they begin to express them. Order of acquisition: and > because/so/but/when > if/after/before Order of mention principle (Clark 1973) (1)He went home before Sally arrived. (2)He went home after Sally arrived.
Data NaomiPeterNinaSarahAdamTotalMean and because so but when if or after while until before since Total , ,4594,918
And-clauses (1)CHILD:Nina has dolly sleeping. ADULT:The doll is sleeping too? CHILD:And the man's sleeping on the big bed. (2)ADULT:That's yours? ADULT:Ok. CHILD:And this is mine. (3)CHILD:Piggy went to market. ADULT:Yes. CHILD:And piggy had none. (4)ADULT:Flipper's on TV yeah. CHILD:And Shaggy's not on TV.
And-clauses And-clause generally follows the semantically associated clause. And-clause is intonationally separated from the semantically associated clause. And-clause is often linked to a clause across speaker turns.
But-clauses (1)ADULT:It is called the skin of the peanut. CHILD:But this isn’t the skin. (2)ADULT:No, it’s not raining today Pete. CHILD:But … it’s raining here. (3)ADULT:I think it’s time to put your dolly to bed. CHILD:But the Snoopy is asleep. (4)ADULT:David doesn’t shave yet. CHILD:Uhuh. But I shave.
Because-clauses (1)ADULT:Did you run over my blocks? CHILD:Mmhm. ADULT:Why? CHILD:Because it’s a fire engine. (2)CHILD:No you can’t get a napkin. ADULT:Hmhm. CHILD:No! ADULT:Why? CHILD:Cause it’s Mommy’s, … Mommy’s cleaning. (3)CHILD:No, don’t touch this camera. ADULT:Why? CHILD:Cause it’s broken.
Because-clauses (4)CHILD:Over here right over here, … don’t put it there. ADULT:Why not? CHILD:Cause it’s my horse. (5)CHILD:You can’t have this! ADULT:Why? CHILD:Cause … I’m using it.
So-clauses (1)ADULT:Hey, what happened? CHILD:It opened. CHILD: So the horsie could get out. (2)ADULT:What are you doing to the radio? CHILD:Putting it on. CHILD:So you can watch it. (3)ADULT:What is that? CHILD:That’s a little duckling. CHILD:So we put him in the forest. (5)ADULT:How many blankets are you putting on Sue? CHILD:Two. CHILD:So he could sleep.
‚Later‘-clauses (1)ADULT:Did you sleep in the same room with Elizabeth? CHILD:Yes. CHILD:And we both sleep on the floor when we take naps. (2)CHILD:I put all the dollies in, see? CHILD:It’s getting crowded after I put all the dollies in. (3)CHILD:It’s got a flat tire. ADULT:Yeah. CHILD:When it’s got a flat tire… it’s need to go to the… to the station. (4)ADULT:He can take some. CHILD:If he takes all of them I’m gonna beat him up.
Complement clauses Semantic types: 1. communicative verbs of saying (e.g. say, tell) 2. perception verbs (e.g. see, hear) 3. mental verbs (e.g. know, think) Formal types: 1. I know (that) she will come.S-complement 2. I don’t know if she will come.IF-complement 3. I don’t know when she will comeWH-complement
Data NaomiPeterNinaSarahAdamTotalMean know see think say look tell pretend guess wonder mean others Total ,812
Early complement clauses I think it’s a cow.(Adam 2,3) See this is empty.(Peter 2,4) I know you are here.(Peter 2,5) Think he’s gone.(Nina 2,5) I guess I’ve one.(Nina 2;6)
Think-clauses I think I'm go in here.3;1 And I think... we need dishes.3;2 Think some toys over here too.3;3 I think I play jingle bells… with the record player.3;5 I think he's gone.3;5 Oh... I think it's a ball.3;5 It's a crazy bone... I think.3;5 I think it's in here.3;5 I think it's in here… Mommy.2;7 Think it's in there.2;8
The subject is always I. The matrix verb appears always in present tense. There is no auxiliary, modal, or PP in the matrix clause. The complement clause is longer and more diverse. There is no that-complementizer. In some sentences I think follows the complement clause. Features of early think clauses
Development of think clauses 3;0 3,6 4;0 4;6 I think__ Do you think__ I thought__ I’m thinking__ They think__ What do you think__
guess clauses I guess I better come….3;5 Guess I'll write some more white.3;9 Guess I lay it down.3;10 I guess saw me break them.3;10 I guess I have one more.4;4 That goes right here but it don't fit… I guess.4;4 Now… I guess that goes right there… doesn't it?4;4 Because it have both lines… I guess.4;5 I guess this is a hill… like this.4;9 I guess this is…5;0
wish clauses I wish I could play with dis [= a Christmas present].3;5 I wish I can keep it (pause) for writing on.3;5 I wish I can keep dat so I can tick (pause) tick it.3;5 I wish we can eat...3;8 I wish we could eat that.3;8 I wish I could have a tractor to drive in them.3;8 I wish... could... make some more just like dat.3;8 I wish you could color all dese.3;9 I wish I could have a picnic.3;11 Momma... I wish I could come back here.3;11
know clauses I know this piece go.2;6 I know... soldier marching.2;8 How do you know it going eat supper?3;0 How do you know dat a duck?.3;0 How do you know dat convertible?3;0 How do you know... I saw ducks3;0 How do you know... put my cup up?3;0 How do you know... doesn’t hurt me?3;1 Mommy... How do you know dat’s Harvard Square bus?3;1 Do you know de lights went off?3;1
see clauses Got to make them bigger… see?2;3 See this is empty.2;3 Let’s see we fix them.2;3 See these are stamps.2;4 See Daddy’s on the grass.2;5 See boat has sails on it.2;5 See the peoples going.2;6 Mommy write it… see?2;6 See I’m writing2;6 See you do it?2;7
remember clauses Remember we played with Samantha?3;0 Remember you reading de puzzle… 3;2 Remember I broke my window?4;0 You have to put it in the barn… remember?4;0 Remember it was Halloween and…4;2 I remember the bee bite me in the belly….4;5 Remember I don’t had to go to the doctors?4;5 Remember last year I knew how to make a two?4;11 Hey... remember that I hanged them on like that?5;0
say clauses The cowboy say (pause) “I'm angry at you”.2;9 He sayed he has something to play with for me.2;9 That means peoples say “put the kitty down”.2;10 She gonna say I have a pretty dress on.2;10 The kitty says he wants to come in.2;10 He say the alligator's gonna bite him up.2;10 You make a rabbit and a bear I said.2;10 He said yes he will give you a cow.2;11 She said she is gonna give me a pillow…2;11 Dolly said “yes she (pause) she’s a witch.2;11
tell clauses She telled me she for get the doll carriage for me.2;10 He telled me… me don’t scream again.3;0 Tell me… I would like to come to your house again.3;0 I’m gonna tell him I wanna go to his house.3;3 I tell her… “no… no… baby that’s my stuff”.3;3 I told you I could make a carrot.4;2 I told you you’re cuckoo.4;6 I wanna tell the kids ‘do you heard of this kind of water?’4;9 Tell Daddy I’m sick.4;10 I told you I need the (…) to do it.4;11
pretend clauses Pretend it’s Ernie.2;3 We will pretend there’s play dough for something to eat.2;10 Just pretend you have a hurt.3;10 I pretending fish were coming.3;0 I pretending whales were coming.3;0 Oh.. this… pretend this is a blanket.3;0 I gonna pretend this is a sleeping bag.3;0 But.. but just pretend that’s his name.3;1 Let’s pretend that’s name.3;1 Now you pretend this is Spencer’s Mommy.3;1
IF-complements … and see if I’m tall.2;10 Now let’s see if it fits on this little boy.3;1 Let me see if there’s something else in her bag.3;3 I want to see if you…3;8 Let me see if I can touch you.4;2 See if I can make a kite.4;8 See if I can make you wink.4;9 See if I can pour it like this.4;9 See if it smells.4;11 Let me see if you get anymore.5;1
WH-complements I wonder what a whale fish is.3;8 I wonder what skinned means.3;8 I wonder what dat is.3;8 I wonder what dat noise is.3;8 I wonder what it is.3;8 Mommy… I wonder what dat is.3;8 I wonder what dey are.3;8 I wonder what dis is.3;8 I wonder where the door is.3;8 I wonder where the rest of it is.3;8
WH-complements Guess what it is?3;5 Guess who we spun?4;1 Guess what that is?4;5 Guess what I can make still?4;6 Guess what that is?4;6 Guess what this is?4;10 Guess what it is?4;10 Guess what dis is?4;11 Guess what dis is going to be, Mommy?5;2 Guess how old I am?5;2
IF + WH-complements Early clauses: Let (me/us) see if __ I wonder wh __ Guess __ ? See if __ Later clauses: (1) He doesn’t know where he’s driving.[4;0] (2) Paul knows where it is, doesn’t he?[4;3] (3) This airplane doesn’t know where it’s going.[4;4] (4) She didn’t know where it was.[5;0]
schematic concrete The two dimensions of the development simplecomplex