2 Presentation Outline 1. Defining the Absolute Monarch 2. Phillip II of Spain3. Louis XIV of France4. Charles I of England and the English Civil War5. The Russian Czar Peter the Great
3 1) Defining the Absolute Monarch: Who are absolute monarchs? Kings or queens who held all power within their states’ boundariesThey believed god created the monarchy and monarchs were God’s representative on earth (Divine Right)
4 2. Phillip II of SpainSon of Charles V – ruler of the Holy Roman EmpireBecame ruler of Spain, Netherlands, and the Spanish American coloniesCreated and empire that circled the globeabsolutist
5 Phillip IIDefender of Catholicism against Muslims and Protestants- Ruthless persecutionDefeated Ottomans at Battle of Lepanto (1571)Spanish Armada destroyed by England (1588)Spanish empire never recovers
6 3. Louis XIV of France Background Grandfather – Henry IV enacted the Edict of NantesCardinal Richelieu helped Louis’ dad establish control of France
7 Louis’ BackgroundLouis became king at 4 years old when his father diedLouis grew hate the nobility, because of the riots that tore France apart during his childhood
9 “L’ètat, c’est moi” “I am the state” Louis’ view was that he and the state were one in the sameHe became the most powerful ruler in French history
10 Louis attacks the Nobility Louis excluded the nobility from the French councilsHe increased the power of government agents called intendantsThe intendants collected taxes
11 Louis is devoted to making France an Economic Power Jean Baptiste Colbert became Louis’ minister of financeHe wanted to make France self-sufficientColbert developed the theory of mercantilism:Wanted to export (send goods over seas) more than you import (bring goods in from over seas)
13 French Military Campaigns Louis spent his $ on military campaigns to expand French boundariesThese wars almost bankrupted the countryCountries learned to join together to defeat France
14 War of Spanish Succession The Spanish king left his throne to Louis XIV grandson in 1700Europe was outraged & worried about the two biggest powers being united by blood
15 War of Spanish Succession This war lasted 13 years & France lostLouis lost 3 out of 4 sonsHis grandson will become king of SpainLouis died in 1715
16 Louis’ Legacy When Louis died in 1715, people cheered! Mixed legacy: Positive: France ranked above all other European nations in art & literature. Also considered the military leader of EuropeNegative: Constant warfare & the construction of the Palace of Versailles put France into staggering debt. Plus the poor were burdened by high taxes
18 4) Charles I and the English Civil War Took over for James in 1625He needs money to fight wars,Parliament won’t give it to him. He dissolves it.1628- He really needs money. Parliament forced him to sign the Petition of Right, a document that granted rights to citizensKing could not imprison people without just cause, levy taxes without parliament’s consent, quarter soldiers in private homes, impose martial law (military rule) in peacetime
19 Charles ICharles signs the Petition of the Right. and then does not honor it.If he agrees to the P.O.R. he would be admitting that the law is more powerful than him.Refuses to call ParliamentTaxes the people heavilyMakes many enemies
20 English Civil War 1642-1649 2 sides Royalists or Cavaliers were loyal to the KingWealthy nobles, Flashy, long hairedRoundheadsWere Puritan supporters of ParliamentWorking class, middle class and PuritansNo side wins for first few years of war
21 The King is Executed!Parliament tries King Charles I for being a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy.”Was beheaded in January of 1649Sent shock waves throughout EuropeIf a monarch in England can be killed, a monarch can be killed in any country.
23 Aftermath of the English Civil War Brief rule of Oliver Cromwell and the Roundheads ( )Restoration of the Monarchy under Charles II 16601689 Bill of Rights adopted by Parliament and signed by the King- absolutism ends in England!
24 English Bill of Rights Ratified revolution of 1688 Ensures that Parliament will now and forever be superior to the monarchyKing had to call parliament regularlyParliament controlled spendingKing couldn’t interfere with Parliament or dissolve itNo Catholic could sit on the throneTrial by JuryNo excessive fines or cruel and unusual punishmentHabeas corpus- couldn’t throw someone in jail without charging them with a specific crime
25 5) The Russian Czar Peter the Great 1600s) Russia is still a medieval state untouched by the Renaissance and isolated from Western Europe.Romanov family rules.Czar Peter the Great took throne at age 10, eventually stood 7 feet tall, and was very curious about the west.Peter goes to study western technology in Europe and wants to modernize Russia.He returns to Russia with many ideas, however, it’s difficult to convince fellow Russians to reform.
26 Peter centralized royal power and brought all Russians under his control, including the Russian Orthodox Church (Christian).He also spread serfdom (slavery).
27 ReformsImproved education, waterways, canals, math, science, engineering.Paid for reforms by encouraging exports.Insisted noblemen shave their beards so as to imitate western Europe.Imposed tax on beards. If you paid the tax, you held a coin for proof and didn’t have to shave.Sought to end practice of secluding women so held grand parties to encourage upper-class men and women to dance.
28 No mercy for anyone that resisted reforms. Had 1,000 palace guards tortured and executed for resisting.He left their rotting corpses outside the palace for months.Peter looks to extend Russian borders by utilizing the largest army in Europe.Russia goes to war with Sweden, wins, gets land on the Baltic Sea.Wanted a warm-water port though, so he looks to the south.
30 Russians fight the Ottoman Turks for coast of Black Sea, lose. Peter begins new capital city of St. Petersburg to create a “window on the West”.City was built on swamps, so he had serfs drain the swamps. Thousands died.Invited Italian architects and artisans to design great palaces.Russian traders and raiders blazed trails across Siberia toward Pacific Ocean.Peter hires Vitus Bering to explore area between Siberia and Alaska (Bering Strait).