Presentation on theme: "ABSOLUTE MONARCHS AP World History. Presentation Outline 1. Defining the Absolute Monarch 2. Phillip II of Spain 3. Louis XIV of France 4. Charles I of."— Presentation transcript:
ABSOLUTE MONARCHS AP World History
Presentation Outline 1. Defining the Absolute Monarch 2. Phillip II of Spain 3. Louis XIV of France 4. Charles I of England and the English Civil War 5. The Russian Czar Peter the Great
1) Defining the Absolute Monarch: Who are absolute monarchs? Kings or queens who held all power within their states’ boundaries They believed god created the monarchy and monarchs were God’s representative on earth (Divine Right)
2. Phillip II of Spain Son of Charles V – ruler of the Holy Roman Empire Became ruler of Spain, Netherlands, and the Spanish American colonies Created and empire that circled the globe absolutist
Phillip II Defender of Catholicism against Muslims and Protestants- Ruthless persecution Defeated Ottomans at Battle of Lepanto (1571) Spanish Armada destroyed by England (1588) Spanish empire never recovers
3. Louis XIV of France Background Grandfather – Henry IV enacted the Edict of Nantes Cardinal Richelieu helped Louis’ dad establish control of France
Louis’ Background Louis became king at 4 years old when his father died Louis grew hate the nobility, because of the riots that tore France apart during his childhood
How Louis XIV was an Absolute Ruler?
“L’ètat, c’est moi” “I am the state” Louis’ view was that he and the state were one in the same He became the most powerful ruler in French history
Louis attacks the Nobility Louis excluded the nobility from the French councils He increased the power of government agents called intendants The intendants collected taxes
Louis is devoted to making France an Economic Power Jean Baptiste Colbert became Louis’ minister of finance He wanted to make France self- sufficient Colbert developed the theory of mercantilism: Wanted to export (send goods over seas) more than you import (bring goods in from over seas)
Louis’ Disastrous Wars
French Military Campaigns Louis spent his $ on military campaigns to expand French boundaries These wars almost bankrupted the country Countries learned to join together to defeat France
War of Spanish Succession The Spanish king left his throne to Louis XIV grandson in 1700 Europe was outraged & worried about the two biggest powers being united by blood
War of Spanish Succession This war lasted 13 years & France lost Louis lost 3 out of 4 sons His grandson will become king of Spain Louis died in 1715
Louis’ Legacy When Louis died in 1715, people cheered! Mixed legacy: Positive: France ranked above all other European nations in art & literature. Also considered the military leader of Europe Negative: Constant warfare & the construction of the Palace of Versailles put France into staggering debt. Plus the poor were burdened by high taxes
The Palace at Versailles- Splendid Absolutism
4) Charles I and the English Civil War Took over for James in 1625 He needs money to fight wars, Parliament won’t give it to him. He dissolves it. 1628- He really needs money. Parliament forced him to sign the Petition of Right, a document that granted rights to citizens King could not imprison people without just cause, levy taxes without parliament’s consent, quarter soldiers in private homes, impose martial law (military rule) in peacetime
Charles I Charles signs the Petition of the Right. and then does not honor it. If he agrees to the P.O.R. he would be admitting that the law is more powerful than him. Refuses to call Parliament Taxes the people heavily Makes many enemies
English Civil War 1642-1649 2 sides Royalists or Cavaliers were loyal to the King Wealthy nobles, Flashy, long haired Roundheads Were Puritan supporters of Parliament Working class, middle class and Puritans No side wins for first few years of war
The King is Executed! Parliament tries King Charles I for being a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy.” Was beheaded in January of 1649 Sent shock waves throughout Europe If a monarch in England can be killed, a monarch can be killed in any country.
Aftermath of the English Civil War Brief rule of Oliver Cromwell and the Roundheads (1653-1658) Restoration of the Monarchy under Charles II 1660 1689 Bill of Rights adopted by Parliament and signed by the King- absolutism ends in England!
English Bill of Rights Ratified revolution of 1688 Ensures that Parliament will now and forever be superior to the monarchy King had to call parliament regularly Parliament controlled spending King couldn’t interfere with Parliament or dissolve it No Catholic could sit on the throne Trial by Jury No excessive fines or cruel and unusual punishment Habeas corpus- couldn’t throw someone in jail without charging them with a specific crime
5) The Russian Czar Peter the Great 1600s) Russia is still a medieval state untouched by the Renaissance and isolated from Western Europe. Romanov family rules. Czar Peter the Great took throne at age 10, eventually stood 7 feet tall, and was very curious about the west. Peter goes to study western technology in Europe and wants to modernize Russia. He returns to Russia with many ideas, however, it’s difficult to convince fellow Russians to reform.
Peter centralized royal power and brought all Russians under his control, including the Russian Orthodox Church (Christian). He also spread serfdom (slavery).
Reforms Improved education, waterways, canals, math, science, engineering. Paid for reforms by encouraging exports. Insisted noblemen shave their beards so as to imitate western Europe. Imposed tax on beards. If you paid the tax, you held a coin for proof and didn’t have to shave. Sought to end practice of secluding women so held grand parties to encourage upper- class men and women to dance.
No mercy for anyone that resisted reforms. Had 1,000 palace guards tortured and executed for resisting. He left their rotting corpses outside the palace for months. Peter looks to extend Russian borders by utilizing the largest army in Europe. Russia goes to war with Sweden, wins, gets land on the Baltic Sea. Wanted a warm-water port though, so he looks to the south.
Russians fight the Ottoman Turks for coast of Black Sea, lose. Peter begins new capital city of St. Petersburg to create a “window on the West”. City was built on swamps, so he had serfs drain the swamps. Thousands died. Invited Italian architects and artisans to design great palaces. Russian traders and raiders blazed trails across Siberia toward Pacific Ocean. Peter hires Vitus Bering to explore area between Siberia and Alaska (Bering Strait).