Presentation on theme: "February 2nd Sign in and Participation cards Quick Writing"— Presentation transcript:
1February 2nd Sign in and Participation cards Quick Writing Review CovenantLecture One – Sociological Perspective and AnalysisHomework:Read: Chapter 2 of Introductions
2Quick Writing Take 5 minutes and explain the following quote: “[Humans] make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given and transmitted from the past.” - Karl Marx
3The Sociological Perspective Lecture OneEssentially… the study of societySociology is the study of social structures and social relationshipsWe must remember that society is not a thing…it does not act…society is a set of relationships, we make society, and we decide what society is…it does not exist outside of us…We are interested in the outcomes produced by these relationships and structures…how they influence human behavior and social outcomes (such as divorce, hunger, poverty)
4What is Sociology? Study of Society…what does that mean? It examines the ways in which the forms of social structure & social categories & various social institutions affect human attitudes, actions, and opportunities.Sociology enables us to understand the structure and dynamics of society, and their intricate connections to patterns of human behavior and individual life changes.
5Why Care About Understanding Society? We are products of society and society is a product of usUnderstand why and how we came to be like we areOur position within the social structure (society) determines how we will act, think, and what resources we haveOur place in society is the intersection of many social relationshipsGender, race, class, age, geography, sexuality
6Born the Opposite Sex?Gender as a social position – a place in societyConstrains what we think our choices are and how others think about who we are and how we should actSocial positions come with an inherent set of advantages and disadvantagesBy looking at gender we can see:How the Individual and Society are linkedGender, like other social constructions, is both a myth and reality
7What do sociologists study? Sociologists explore how both individuals and collectivities construct, maintain, and alter social organization in various waysSociology asks about the sources and consequences of change in social arrangements and institutions, and about the satisfactions and difficulties of planning, accomplishing, and adapting to such changeAreas studied in examining social dynamics include: culture, socialization, cooperation, conflict, power, exchange, inequality, deviance, social control, violence, order and social change
8Examining the present with the past “[Humans] make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly encountered, given and transmitted from the past.” - Karl MarxTo understand the present social arrangement in society, sociologists must also look into the past
9How sociologists study society Sociologists look to explain how and why things happen. In every question a sociologist asks and every answer they give you will find an explanation of the how and whyKeep this in mind over the semester!
10Critical Thinking is Required Sociology is a critical and analytical discipline and sociological thinking is a process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating
11Beliefs vs. Sociological Analysis As social beings, we see the social world through our own lens of experience and belief system and often make judgments based on our personal beliefsTo remain objective, sociology helps us see how that lens was formed and be honest about our assumptionsWhat we see with sociological analyses often challenges many of our thoughts and beliefsCome to class prepared to be exposed to alternate explanations of the world and to try and understand them
12The Sociological Perspective Sociology seeks to understand the relationship between the individual and society with:
13C Wright Mills: Sociological Imagination Born 1916, died 1962Public Sociologisthe did not want sociologists to hide in ivory towers and just test theory…he felt that sociology should also be used to make people’s lives better…Wrote during a time of significant social change …After WWIIMain Ideas:Task of sociology is to understand the relationship between individuals and societyUsed to reveal how the context of society shapes our livesHe believed that everyone benefits from taking a sociological perspective…but especially people like journalists, social scientists, and others examining society…We cannot understand society or ourselves without understanding bothTherefore we need to connect our own personal biography with the history of society…and our personal troubles with larger social issuesThese are to concepts and terms he used…A quality of mind, a way of understanding the social worldUniquely sociological, but for everyone“Personal troubles of the milieu”Occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with othersA private matter, resolution lies with individual“Public issues of social structure”Organization of social institutions in societyTranscends the local environment of the individualSociological Imagination relates the larger social forces in society to the personal troubles of individualsThe sociological imagination asks us to question the relationship between…Society and Individual?History and Biography?Structure and Agency?iPOD:Who consumes the ipod?What relationships are behind the iPod?Our consumption of the ipod here is based on cheap labor and inputs abroad.Examining these relationships gives us the knowledge to understand society, our place in it, and the ability to make changesA quality of mind that allows us to connect:“Personal troubles of the milieu”with“Public issues of social structure”Examining these relationships gives us the knowledge to understand society, our place in it, and the ability to make changes
14HIV/AIDS GloballyAlmost 39 million people around the world are living with HIV – slightly more than the population of Poland.Nearly two-thirds of them live in Sub-Saharan Africa.Sub-Saharan Africa has been hit hardest by HIV.UNAids and the WHO no longer talk of a single African epidemic but of highly varied outbreaks across the continent.Starting in the late 1970s and early 1980s, HIV spread in a band from West Africa across to the Indian Ocean, before moving to the southern countries where its grip is now strongest.South Africa has the most cases in the world, with five million. Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland have the highest percentage of people who are HIV positive.Lesotho now has the highest rateExamples: HIV/AIDS and iPodHIV:How can we explain the fact the higher rate of HIV among Southern Africans?What is the relationship between an individual contracting HIV and the larger society?Individual choices but within a context.How can we explain why a rural mother in Africa contracted HIV?Less powerHusband migrates for his jobPoverty, poor nutrition, health care, etc.Global inequality is one of the primary reasons for the unequal distribution of HIV/AIDS globallyAlthough we are taught that HIV is the consequence of individual actions, we see that the social context play a significant rolePoverty leads to a compromised immune system and the susceptibility of individuals to acquire the virus and develop AIDS
15Understanding and Explaining HIV/AIDS Cultural ExplanationsVirility is strongly linked to masculinity in many cultures affected by HIV/AIDSLow status of womenSocial Structure ExplanationsGlobal poverty and inequality create low immune systemsUnderdevelopment limits economic opportunitiesPolitical ExplanationsLack of adequate health care and access to treatmentPolitical policies that do not address the issueIndividual ExplanationsLack of education and poor choices
16Social ConsciousnessWrote during a time of social change and challenges to authority – 1960 – 1970sThis greatly influenced his writings and you can see that his ideas about sociology emphasize ‘skepticism’ more than Mills ideas…Sociological perspective is form a consciousness that enables us to see "reality" behind the "facades"Sometimes there are major historical events or changes that expose them…for example, Hurricane Katrina unmasked the poverty and racism that still permeates the South and urban areas…people and news papers began talking about these issues.DebunkingA sociological perspective debunks commonly held notions and taken-for-granted ideas…Race and Hurricane Katrina that it is in fact alive and well…“It can be said that the first wisdom of sociology is this – things are not what they seem.”Social construction of realityHe was also interested in how we construct reality and “truth”…for example we may believe that the differences between the genders are true and real…we do not construct them, but they just exist…Therefore, sociological questions look beyond what is commonly accepted or officially defined goals of human actions…And to ask sociological questions is to:Like the sociological imagination, social consciousness helps us understand ourselves…Berger says that social-consciousness is self-consciousness…“Society does not stop at our skins. Society penetrates us as much as it envelopes us”In fact we can’t…..We cannot separate our understanding of ourselves from an understanding of society or think of ourselves without social referenceCan you think of an aspect of your own identity that is not based on a social category or social referent?The Sociological Perspective is:A quality of mind; a way of understanding everyday lifeUsed to reveal how the context of society shapes our lives and the lives of othersSociology shows us how ‘reality’ is socially constructed and context specificSocial consciousness is self consciousnessAnother sociologist, Peter Berger, believes that we need a social consciousness or “A form of consciousness that enables us to see the "reality" behind the "facades."He asks us to critically examine the things that are familiar to us as unfamiliar“It can be said that the first wisdom of sociology is this – things are not what they seem.”
17Practicing Social Consciousness Have you ever asked yourself: Why do women shave their legs?Why is it normal in ourculture for women toshave their legs andnot men?
18Asking How & Why (and when) with Social Consciousness When did this ideal emerge?In the 20th Century when women’s legs became more visible due to shorter skirts and changing fashionHow did this ideal emerge?Needed to have the right technology to make shaving easy and safe. The safety razor emerged on the market in early 20th Century.Why did this ideal emerge?Anglo-American cultural standard: leg hair is unfeminineCultural mechanism to increase sexual dimorphism (difference between sexes in the same species)
19In Conclusion…A sociological perspective requires us to think critically and analytically about the social world around us, our place in it, our relationships to others, and our own personal beliefs and valuesWhile sociologists study many aspects of society and social issues, the core concepts of the discipline are power, inequality, social justice, and social change