Presentation on theme: "GALLI MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGINS BY DIODORUS SICULUS Celtica was ruled in ancient times by a renowned man who had a daughter who was of unusual stature and far."— Presentation transcript:
GALLI MYTHOLOGICAL ORIGINS BY DIODORUS SICULUS Celtica was ruled in ancient times by a renowned man who had a daughter who was of unusual stature and far excelled in beauty all the other maidens. But she, because of her strength of body and marvellous comeliness, was so haughty that she kept refusing every man who wooed her in marriage, since she believed that no one of her wooers was worthy of her. In the course of his campaigning, Heracles visited Celtica and founded the city of Alesia, and the maiden, on seeing Heracles, accepted his embraces with all eagerness, her parents having given their consent. From this union she bore to Heracles a son named Galates, who far surpassed all the youths of the tribe in quality of spirit and strength of body. And when he had attained to man's estate and had succeeded to the throne of his fathers, he subdued a large part of the neighbouring territory and accomplished great feats in war. Becoming renowned for his bravery, he called his subjects Galatae [or Gauls] after himself, and these in turn gave their name to all of Galatia [or Gaul].
CONSUETUDINES Since the climate is destroyed by the excessive cold, the land produces neither wine nor oil, and as a consequence the Gauls who are deprived of these fruits make a drink out of barley which they call zythos or beer. Around their wrists and arms they wear bracelets, around their necks heavy necklaces of solid gold [torques], and huge rings they wear as well, and even corselets of gold.
MUNDITIA The Gauls are tall of body, with rippling muscles, and white of skin, and their hair is blond, and not only naturally so, but they also make it their practice by artificial means to increase the distinguishing color which nature has given it. For they are always washing their hair in lime-water, and they pull it back from the forehead to the top of the head and back to the nape of the neck, with the result that their appearance is like that of Satyrs and Pans, since the treatment of their hair makes it so heavy and coarse that it differs in no respect from the mane of horses. Some of them shave the beard, but others let it grow a little; and the nobles shave their cheeks, but they let the moustache grow until it covers the mouth. Consequently, when they are eating, their moustaches become entangled in the food, and when they are drinking, the beverage passes, as it were, through a kind of strainer. When they dine they all sit, not upon chairs, but upon the ground, using for cushions the skins of wolves or of dogs. The service at the meals is performed by the youngest children, both male and female, who are of suitable age; and near at hand are their fireplaces heaped with coals, and on them are cauldrons and spits holding whole pieces of meat.
VESTIMENTA et TELA The clothing they wear is striking - shirts which have been dyed and embroidered in varied colors, and breeches, which they call in their tongue bracae; and they wear striped coats, fastened by a buckle on the shoulder, heavy for winter wear and light for summer, in which are set checks, close together and of varied hues [a kind of tartan]. For armor they use long shields, as high as a man, some of them even having the figures of animals embossed on them in bronze. On their heads they put bronze helmets which have large embossed figures standing out from them and give an appearance of great size to those who wear them. Some of them have iron cuirasses, chain-wrought, but others are satisfied with the armor which Nature has given them and go into battle naked. In place of the short sword they carry long broad-swords which are hung on chains of iron or bronze and are worn along the right flank. Some of their javelins come from the forge straight, others twist in and out in spiral shapes for their entire length, the purpose being that the thrust may not only cut the flesh, but mangle it as well, and that the withdrawal of the spear may lacerate the wound.
POPULUS Throughout all Gaul there are two orders of those men who are of any rank and dignity: for the commonality is held almost in the condition of slaves, and dares to undertake nothing of itself, and is admitted to no deliberation. The greater part, when they are pressed either by debt, or the large amount of their tributes, or the oppression of the more powerful, give themselves up in vassalage to the nobles, who possess over them the same rights without exception as masters over their slaves. But of these two orders, one is that of the Druids, the other that of the knights.
DRUIDES ۩ private sacrifices, and interpret all matters of religion. ۩ almost all controversies, public and private; and if ۩ any crime has been perpetrated, if murder has been committed, if there be any dispute about an inheritance, if any about boundaries, these same persons decide it; ۩ they decree rewards and punishments; if any one, either in a private or public capacity, has not submitted to their decision, they interdict him from the sacrifices. ۩ Those who have been thus interdicted are esteemed in the number of the impious and the criminal: ۩ all shun them, and avoid their society and conversation, lest they receive some evil from their contact; ۩ nor is justice administered to them when seeking it, nor is any dignity bestowed on them.
DRUIDES ۩ do not go to war ۩ do not pay tribute together with the rest ۩ they have an exemption from military service ۩ many embrace this profession of their own accord ۩[many] are sent to it by their parents and relations ۩ learn by heart a great number of verses; ۩ course of training twenty years ۩ un lawful to commit these to writing ۩ public and private transactions, they use Greek characters
EQUITES The other order is that of the knights. These, when there is occasion and any war occurs (which before Caesar's arrival was for the most part wont to happen every year, as either they on their part were inflecting injuries or repelling those which others inflected on them), are all engaged in war. And those of them most distinguished by birth and resources, have the greatest number of vassals and dependents about them. They acknowledge this sort of influence and power only.