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1 Motivation, Ability and Opportunity (MAO) Consumer Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Motivation, Ability and Opportunity (MAO) Consumer Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Motivation, Ability and Opportunity (MAO) Consumer Behavior

2 Overview

3 3 What is Consumer Behavior? Marketing Response 4 P’s

4 4 Relationship between sales and # of times ad is shown SALES ($) # of Times ad is shown

5 5 What is Consumer Behavior? Marketing Black Box of the Consumer Response 4 P’s

6 6 A BILITY M OTIVATION O PPORTUNITY EXPOSURE ATTENTION PERCEPTION ATTITUDE FORMATION & CHANGE CATEGORIZATION/ COMPREHENSION MEMORY & RETRIEVAL Incidental Information DECISIONDECISION

7 7 M otivation? Inner state of arousal/encouragement, this aroused energy is directed to achieving a goal Inner state of arousal/encouragement, this aroused energy is directed to achieving a goal We, as humans, are goal driven beings – all of our behavior is driven by some motivation or goal….not always congruent goals We, as humans, are goal driven beings – all of our behavior is driven by some motivation or goal….not always congruent goals High vs. low motivation High vs. low motivation

8 8 Motivation High motivation – pay careful attention, evaluate critically (central issues) High motivation – pay careful attention, evaluate critically (central issues) Low motivation – don’t devote much energy, use shortcuts (peripheral issues) Low motivation – don’t devote much energy, use shortcuts (peripheral issues)

9 What affects motivation? A) Personal relevance B) Values, goals, & needs C) Perceived risk (safety, social standing, self- perception, …) D) Moderately inconsistency with attitudes

10 10 A) Personal Relevance increases when: Has consequences on your life (dandruff ads – cannot get a job done) Has consequences on your life (dandruff ads – cannot get a job done) Influences your self-concept or the way others view you (smoking is cool!) Influences your self-concept or the way others view you (smoking is cool!) Consistent with values, goals, & needs Consistent with values, goals, & needs

11 11 B) Values, Goals, Needs Values – beliefs that guide what we think is important or good (very close to wants) Values – beliefs that guide what we think is important or good (very close to wants) Goals – objectives that we would like to achieve (a goal develops from a need) Goals – objectives that we would like to achieve (a goal develops from a need) Needs – Internal state of tension, caused by disequilibrium from ideal/desired physical or psychological state Needs – Internal state of tension, caused by disequilibrium from ideal/desired physical or psychological state

12 12 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

13 13 Types of Needs Biogenic Needs (food, air, water) Biogenic Needs (food, air, water) Psychogenic Needs Psychogenic Needs  Need for Affiliation (social interaction)  Need for Power/Control  Need for Uniqueness Utilitarian Needs (mpg, durability) Utilitarian Needs (mpg, durability) Hedonic & Symbolic Needs Hedonic & Symbolic Needs

14 14 Characteristics of Needs Dynamic! – ever evolving Dynamic! – ever evolving Exist in hierarchy Exist in hierarchy Internally or externally aroused Internally or externally aroused Not always congruent – can conflict Not always congruent – can conflict

15 15 Needs Social or nonsocial Social or nonsocial  Social - Need for affiliation  Anti-social needs – seats in a theatre or airplane Functional, symbolic or hedonic Functional, symbolic or hedonic Need for cognition or mental stimulation Need for cognition or mental stimulation  Reading are mentally taxing  Movies that make you think

16 16 Identifying Needs How do physical characteristics of products get linked up with our motivations? How do physical characteristics of products get linked up with our motivations? How would managers even know what our motivations are? How would managers even know what our motivations are? How do we know what consumers want? How do we know what consumers want? Ask them – but they don’t always know Ask them – but they don’t always know

17 17 Measuring Needs A means-ends chain is a knowledge structure that links consumers’ knowledge about product attributes with their knowledge about consequences and values A means-ends chain is a knowledge structure that links consumers’ knowledge about product attributes with their knowledge about consequences and values AttributesConsequencesValues

18 18 Means-End Chain: Gillette Fusion Gillette Fusion 5 Blades Lubricating Strip Close Shave Smooth, Soft Shave Feel well- groomed Be comfort- able Be attractive Be relaxed, not stressed BrandAttributes Functional Consequences Psychosocial Consequences Values

19 19 C) Perceived Risk …the extent to which a consumer is uncertain about the consequences of buying, using or disposing of an offering …the extent to which a consumer is uncertain about the consequences of buying, using or disposing of an offering

20 Washington State University - kre 20 Types of Perceived Risk Performance risk – will the product perform? Performance risk – will the product perform? Physical risk – is it safe? Physical risk – is it safe? Social risk – will it hurt my social standing? Social risk – will it hurt my social standing? Psychological risk – does it fit with what I think of myself? Psychological risk – does it fit with what I think of myself? Time risk – do I have the time to invest in it? Time risk – do I have the time to invest in it?

21 21 What can marketers do? Reduce risk perceptions Reduce risk perceptions  Reduce uncertainty  Reduce perceived consequences of failure Enhance risk perceptions in order to Enhance risk perceptions in order to  Increase consumer motivation to process/involvement (safety features on cars)

22 22 Motivation evokes involvement: Involvement: Involvement:  Level of perceived personal importance and/or interest evoked by a stimulus High vs. Low Involvement High vs. Low Involvement

23 23 Involvement Scale To Me (Object to be Judged) Is 1.important_:_:_:_:_:_:_unimportant 2.boring_:_:_:_:_:_:_interesting 3.relevant_:_:_:_:_:_:_irrelevant 4.exciting_:_:_:_:_:_:_unexciting 5. means nothing _:_:_:_:_:_:_ means a lot 6.appealing_:_:_:_:_:_:_unappealing 7.fascinating_:_:_:_:_:_:_mundane 8.worthless_:_:_:_:_:_:_valuable 9.involving_:_:_:_:_:_:_uninvolving 10. not needed _:_:_:_:_:_:_needed

24 24 Involvement Objects Involvement is not just with a certain product – it can be with: Involvement is not just with a certain product – it can be with:  Product categories - cars  Brands – Crest, Mac  Ads (e.g., the creepy Burger king)  Mediums – magazines, TV  Specific Decisions

25 25 Marketing Strategies 1)Concentrate on high involvement segment 2)Attempt to increase or build involvement 3)Accept low involvement

26 26 D) Inconsistency with Attitudes We tend to process messages that are moderately inconsistent with our attitudes We tend to process messages that are moderately inconsistent with our attitudes  If they are drastically inconsistent, we will dismiss them  If they are highly consistent, the ad may not get our attention

27 27 So, motivation enhanced when something is: 1) Consistent with our needs, values & goals 2) Personally relevant (involving) 3) Somewhat Risky 4) Moderately inconsistent with our prior attitudes

28 Knowing when to enhance perceived risk and when to reduce perceived risk is vital to creating effective marketing strategies. For which of the following products does it make sense (for the marketer) to increase perceived risk of not buying? A) Home security systems B) Sky-diving C) Life insurance D) All of the above E) A and C

29 29 A bility to Act - Depends Upon: Knowledge/Experience Knowledge/Experience Cognitive Style Cognitive Style Intelligence Intelligence Education Education Age Age Money Money

30 30 O pportunity Consumers may be motivated and have the ability, but are we as marketers giving them the opportunity to process the information? Consumers may be motivated and have the ability, but are we as marketers giving them the opportunity to process the information? Even when motivation and ability are high – we must ensure opportunity Even when motivation and ability are high – we must ensure opportunity

31 31 Opportunity determined by: Time Time Distractions Distractions Amount of Information Amount of Information Complexity of Information Complexity of Information Repetition of Information Repetition of Information

32 32 In marketing, which do you think are the most important factors in determining whether consumers will engage in the action we want them to? Hint: Dinar Example

33 33 How well does your drawing match?

34 34 Marketing Implications: Motivation Motivation Segment on needs Segment on needs Create new needs Create new needs Develop need-satisfying offerings Develop need-satisfying offerings Ability Ability Understand consumers’ knowledge and processing styles Understand consumers’ knowledge and processing styles Match communications with processing styles Match communications with processing styles Facilitate ability Facilitate ability Opportunity Opportunity Repetition Repetition Reduce time-pressured decision making Reduce time-pressured decision making Reduce purchase/usage time Reduce purchase/usage time

35 35 Advertisers leverage MOA to involve and engage target customers target customers Takeaway…

36 Managerial Questions? What factors of motivation, ability, and opportunity could affect consumers whom you are trying to attract to your brand? How would consumer motivation, ability, and opportunity affect your brand compared to others in your category (i.e., competitors)? What would you do to address the issues of motivation, ability, and opportunity if you were preparing a marketing effort for your brand?

37 Biodiesel


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