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Distribution System Analysis for Smart Grid Roger C. Dugan Sr. Technical Executive, EPRI Webcast Feb 8, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Distribution System Analysis for Smart Grid Roger C. Dugan Sr. Technical Executive, EPRI Webcast Feb 8, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Distribution System Analysis for Smart Grid Roger C. Dugan Sr. Technical Executive, EPRI Webcast Feb 8, 2011

2 2 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 EPRI Power Systems Modeling/Analysis Group Resource group -- systems modeling, simulation, analysis Consulting services from generation to end-use Resource support for R&D collaborative efforts –Transmission planning –Operations –Distribution planning and operations –Substation design –Power quality

3 3 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 The Smart Grid SG is different things to different people –Communications and control Typically not represented in DSA (at present) –Distributed Resources Generation, Storage, Demand Response –Test Feeders WG has done large induction machines –Monitoring –Protection –Energy Efficiency

4 4 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Smart Grid Features Distributed Resources –Generation –Renewable Generation Variable sources –Energy Storage –Demand Response

5 5 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Smart Grid Features, cont’d Communications and Control –AMI deployed throughout the system –High-speed communications to Metering and Controls –State Estimation

6 6 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Impact of SG on Distribution System Analysis? What DSA framework is needed to support all features of the SG? Will there be a need for DSA if everything is monitored thoroughly? What could we do if we know more about the system? How will merging of planning, monitoring and DSE change DSA tools?

7 7 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Role of Distribution System Analysis Distribution state estimation Emergency reconfiguration –Account for missing data, failed comm EPRI vision –Planning and DMS will converge into one set of tools (Real time and planning will merge) Continued need for DSA tools –Different form and more capabilities

8 8 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Advanced Simulation Platform -- OpenDSS Open source of EPRI’s Distribution System Simulator (DSS) –developed in 1997 –open sourced in 2008 to collaborate with other research projects OpenDSS designed to capture –Time-specific benefits and –Location-specific benefits Differentiating features –full multiphase model –numerous solution modes –“dynamic” power flow –system controls –flexible load models Needed for analysis of –DG/renewables –energy efficiency –PHEV/EV –non-typical loadshapes Download for free from

9 9 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Computing Annual Losses Peak load losses are not necessarily indicative of annual losses

10 10 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Overall Model Concept

11 Supporting Renewables

12 12 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Solar PV Simulation 1-hr Intervals Peak is not reduced What is the Capacity Gain?

13 13 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Can DMS Enable Increased Capacity? Shorter Duration Of Peak

14 14 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Cloud Transients: 1-sec Interval Impact on Feeder Voltage

15 15 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Solar Ramping Basic Solar Ramp Function Regulators compensate for drop Voltage Pushed over limit on recovery

16 16 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Regulator Response for Series of Cloud Transients Regulator Operations

17 17 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 “Headroom” for PV Voltage Profile for 100% Load Voltage Profile for 40% Load Use DMS to Regulate Lower to Allow More “Headroom” for DG More efficient, too??

18 18 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Steady-State Voltage Maximum change in voltage PV at increased penetration until limit exceeded Use of volt/var control accommodates added PV before violations occur Baseline – No PV 10% PV 15% PV 20% PV 20% PV and VVC PV VV Analysis results from other feeders indicate 25%-100% more PV can be accommodated using VVC Substation

19 19 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Primary Voltage Response with Volt/Var Control 12 kV Voltage Hour V (pu) Baseline – No PV 20% PV 20% PV w/ volt-var control

20 Storage

21 21 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Generic Storage Element Model (OpenDSS Model) % Eff. Charge/DischargeIdle | Discharge | Charge Idling Losses kW, kvar kWh STORED Other Key Properties % Reserve kWhRated kWhStored %Stored kWRated etc.

22 22 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Controlling Storage from DMS Discharge Mode Charge Mode kW Target Discharge Time Total Fleet kW Capacity Total Fleet kWh et. al. Storage “Fleet” Substation V, I Comm Link Time + Discharge rate Peak Shaving Load Following Loadshape Substation controller/DMS

23 23 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Simple Substation Peak Shaving

24 24 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Attempting Peak Shave Every Day Too Early About Right

25 25 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Accounting for Storage Losses Charging DIscharging Charging energy > Discharging energy (compare areas)

26 26 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Key Distribution Modeling Capabilities for Smart Grid Distributed generation modeling Time series simulations Efficiency studies Meshed networks Large systems Parallel computing Distribution state estimation Protective relay simulation AMI Load data Modeling controllers Modeling comm Work flow integration

27 27 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Key Challenges Merging Planning and Real-Time Analysis Very Large System Models Systems Communications Simulations Large Volume of AMI Data AMI-based Decision Making Time Series Simulations Distribution State Estimation

28 28 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Key Challenges, Cont’d Detailed LV Modeling Including multiple feeders, transmission DG Integration and Protection Generator and Inverter Models Meshed (Looped) Network Systems Regulatory Time Pressures

29 29 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Reference R.C. Dugan, R. F. Arritt, T. E. McDermott, S. M. Brahma, K. P. Schneider, “Distribution System Analysis To Support the Smart Grid”, presented at 2010 IEEE PES General Meeting, Minneapolis, MN

30 30 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. OPENSG-SIMSWG Feb 2011 Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity


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