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Knowledge Based Systems: Logic and Deduction Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

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CSE, IIT Kharagpur2 Knowledge and Reasoning Representation, Reasoning and Logic Propositional Logic First-Order Logic Inference in first-order logic –Generalized Modus Ponens –Forward and backward chaining –Resolution Logical Reasoning Systems

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CSE, IIT Kharagpur3 The Wumpus World Environment Adjacent refers to left, right, top, and bottom (not diagonal) Stench:In squares containing and adjacent to wumpus Breeze:In squares adjacent to a pit There can be one wumpus, one gold, and many pits. Agent starts from the bottom-left square of a grid. The agent dies if it enters a square containing a pit or the wumpus The agent can shoot the wumpus along a straight line The agent has only one arrow

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CSE, IIT Kharagpur4 Logic A formal system for describing states of affairs, consisting of: –The syntax of the language, which describes how to make sentences, and –The semantics of the language, which describes the relation between the sentences and the states of affairs A proof theory – a set of rules for deducing the entailments of a set of sentences Improper definition of logic, or an incorrect proof theory can result in absurd reasoning

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CSE, IIT Kharagpur5 Types of Logics LanguageWhat existsBelief of agent Propositional LogicFactsTrue/False/Unknown First-Order LogicFacts, Objects, RelationsTrue/False/Unknown Temporal LogicFacts, Objects, Relations, Times True/False/Unknown Probability TheoryFactsDegree of belief 0..1 Fuzzy LogicDegree of truthDegree of belief 0..1

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CSE, IIT Kharagpur6 Propositional Logic Given a set of atomic propositions AP Sentence Atom | ComplexSentence Atom True | False | AP ComplexSentence ( Sentence ) | Sentence Connective Sentence | Sentence Connective | | |

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CSE, IIT Kharagpur7 Inference Rules Modus Ponens or Implication Elimination: Unit Resolution: Resolution: or …. and several other rules

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CSE, IIT Kharagpur8 Automated Reasoning Deducing the position of the wumpus Another example – If the unicorn is mythical, then it is immortal, but if it is not mythical, then it is a mortal mammal. If the unicorn is either immortal or a mammal, then it is horned. The unicorn is magical if it is horned Can we prove that the unicorn is mythical? Magical? Horned? In general, the inference problem is NP-complete (Cook’s Theorem) If we restrict ourselves to Horn sentences, then repeated use of Modus Ponens gives us a polytime procedure. Horn sentences are of the form: P 1 P 2 … P n Q

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CSE, IIT Kharagpur9 First-order Logic Sentence AtomicSentence | Sentence Connective Sentence | Quantifier Variable, … Sentence | Sentence | (Sentence) AtomicSentence Predicate(Term, …)| Term = Term Term Function(Term, …)| Constant| Variable Connective | | | Quantifier | Constant A | 5 | Kolkata | … Variable a | x | s | … Predicate Before | HasColor | Raining | … Function Mother | Cosine | Headoflist | …

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CSE, IIT Kharagpur10 Examples Other examples: –Not all students take both History and Biology –Only one student failed History –Only one student failed both History and Biology –The best score in History is better than the best score in Biology –No person likes a professor unless the professor is smart –Politicians can fool some of the people all the time, and they can fool all the people some of the time, but they cant fool all the people all the time Russel’s Paradox: –There is a single barber in town. Those and only those who do not shave themselves are shaved by the barber. Who shaves the barber?

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