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16 The East Asian World.

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Presentation on theme: "16 The East Asian World."— Presentation transcript:

1 16 The East Asian World

2 China at Its Apex From the Ming to the Qing
Peasant rebellion of Zhu Yuanzhang, 1368 Ming (Bright) Dynasty Territorial expansion Central Asia, Vietnam, and control over China’s heartland Series of voyages far into Indian Ocean Retreat from Maritime trade First Contacts with the West Portuguese, Macao, and regional trade with Japan Spanish in the Philippines trading with China Christian missionaries Jesuits drew parallels between Christian and Confucian concepts: God and Heaven, Christian morality and Confucian ethics

3 China, cont’d The Ming Brought to Earth
Decline due to corrupted weak rulers, concentration of landownership, peasant rebellions, tribal unrest along northern frontier English and Dutch disrupted silver trade Crop yields declined – starvation High taxes Manchus conquered China, created Qing Ch’ing,or Pure) dynasty

4 China and Its Enemies During the Late Ming Era

5 The Greatness of the Qing
Accession of Manchus not universally applauded Forced Chinese to adopt Manchu dress and hairstyles to spot rebels Males to shave foreheads and braid hair into a queue or execution Manchus adapted well to Chinese conditions Adopted Chinese political system Gradually accepted as rulers The Reign of Kangxi (K’ang Hsi, ) Greatest ruler of China Pacified the people on the northern and western frontiers Patron of the arts and letters Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits’ activities tolerated and reached heights but squabbling led to suppression

6 The Qing, cont’d The Reign of Qianlong
Continued in Kangxi’s footsteps which led to continued growth of China Signs of internal decay: Military campaigns expensive Corruption in courts Unrest in rural areas due to burden of tax, growing population, bureaucratic venality White Lotus Rebellion ( ) Qing Politics Adapted to new environment easily Stressed devotion to principles of Confucianism Manchus - 2 percent of the population – distinct population Manchu had aristocratic privileges, held land and revenue from state treasury Bannermen assigned farmland and organized into military units Dyarchy – administrative positions shared equally with Chinese and Manchus

7 The Qing, cont’d China on the Eve of Western Onslaught
New era of military confrontation and pressure from trade Russia, Treaty of Nerchinsk English in Canton China forced trade restrictions on England England upset at uneven balance of trade, kowtow Emperor declared his distaste for British products, which sowed seeds for a century of humiliation

8 The Qing Empire in the 18th C

9 The Temple of Heaven

10 Changing China The Population Explosion
70 to 80 million in 1390 to over 300 million at the end of the 18th century Long period of peace and stability Introduction of new crops from America (peanuts, sweet potatoes, and maize) New species of faster growing rice from Southeast Asia Seeds of Industrialization Trade and commerce Under control of the government Political and social prejudice against commerce Matteo Ricci, clocks

11 Daily Life in Qing China
The family Joint family Large families to maintain agriculture Filial piety Clan The Role of Women Inferior to men Carry on sacred rituals/govern Husband could divorce his wife, take second wife, or take on a concubine if first wife did not produce a male heir Problems that face widows Influential role in the family

12 Cultural Developments
Rise of the Chinese Novel Colloquial style Sympathized with the downtrodden The Golden Lotus and The Dream of the Red Chamber Art of the Ming and Qing Architecture and the Imperial City in Beijing Decorative arts Artists

13 Tokugawa Japan The Three Great Unifiers Oda Nobunga (1568-1582)
Toyotomi Hideyoshi ( ) Osaka Korea Tokugawa Ieyasu ( )

14 Tokugawa Japan

15 Tokugawa Japan, cont’d Opening to the West
Unification of Japan simultaneous with coming of Europeans Portuguese arrive in 1543, begin regional trade Francis Xavier, Jesuit missionary arrived 1549 Japanese liked tobacco, clocks, spectacles, weapons and armaments Copied European military architecture – built castles Missionaries converted some Japanese but destroyed local idols and shrines, turned temples into Christian schools or churches European intervened in local politics

16 The Christians are Expelled
Edict prohibited Christian activities Expulsion of all missionaries Prohibited foreign trade Closed foreign factories except one owned by Dutch on Hirado Island and at Nagasaki

17 The Tokugawa “Great Peace”
Ruled through a coalition of daimyo and a council of elders State divided into territories, han Daimyo had to have two residences Families left at Edo Economic problems Social system Changes with samurai system

18 The Tokugawa “Great Peace” cont’d
Seeds of Capitalism Commercial expansion Major cities Consumer culture Impact on the samurai Ronin Land Problems Impact on rural population Low population growth

19 The Tokugawa “Great Peace” cont’d
Life in the Village Bakufu Ie Role of women

20 Tokugawa Culture The Literature of the New Middle Class
Saikaku ( ) Theater Kabuki Basho ( ) Hokku Haiku Tokugawa Art Castle building/décor and furnishings Influence of other cultures Influence of “Dutch Learning” Woodblock Printing

21 The Siege of Osaka Castle

22 Korea: The Hermit Kingdom
Followed the Chinese model Yangban (aristocratic class) Chonmin (slaves) Hangul, phonetic alphabet Growing economy Attempts to keep Korea isolated Japanese invasion Manchu invasion Relatively untouched by Europeans


24 Discussion Questions Why were the Manchus so successful at establishing a foreign dynasty in China, and what were the main characteristics of Manchu rule? How did the society and economy of Japan change during the Tokugawa era, and how did Japanese culture reflect these changes? How did China and Japan respond to the coming of the Europeans, and what explains the differences?

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