Background Information Starting in 1989, scientists began to monitor crustal motion throughout Indonesia. They found that the subduction zone was steadily squeezing the island of Sumatra. Before the 12/26 Earthquake. Sumatra has experienced two major earthquakes in the past two centuries, the 1833 magnitude 8.7 earthquake and the 1861 magnitude 8.4 earthquake. The rupture areas are shown in the graph.
12/26 Sumatra Earthquake Magnitude = 9.0 Largest Earthquake since 1964 Alaska quake 4 th Largest in this century Subduction zone is where the Indian plate dives beneath the Asian plate along a fault that dips about 20 degrees into the Earth. Expected surface displacements (black arrows) during the Dec 26 earthquake.
Before Tsunami Jan 3, 2004 After Tsunami Dec 29, 2004 Satellite Pictures of Khao Lak Shoreline, Thailand
DAMAGES Severely damaging marine and coastal national parks. Casualty: 5392 Dead, 8457 Injured and 3062 Missing. 20537 households with a total population of 91638 are considered to have been directly affected. Affected 292 villages in 78 sub- districts of 24 districts. 70% of the damage was concentrated in the popular resort town of Khao Lak in the southern province of Phang Nga. The nearby fishing village of Baan Nam Kem was also literaaly destroyed. US$ 47.9 million loss in fisheries/agriculture sector. People Environment Homeland Economy
Over US$ 7.5 billion in tourism revenue in 2002 representing about 6% of Thailand’s GDP. Tourism industry has an important role at generating income and growth to the country. Nearly 10.8 million tourists visited Thailand in 2002 An estimated 25%-40% decline in tourist arrivals in 2005 could shave 0.751% off Thailand’s 6% GDP growth projection. “Morgan Stanley Research” Contribute 8.9% of jobs Thailand’s Tourism
Prior history Sunda Trench quakes (all to the south along Sumatra): Largest since 1900: M7.9 in 2000 M8.4 in 1797, m8.7 in 1833, M8.5 in 1861 1797 & 1833 quakes ruptured same area only 36 years apart Paleoseismic data show great earthquakes with 230 year recurrence interval in that area How likely will it occur again? First Wave that reaches Aow Nang, Thailand
Why do we need to rebuild? Recreate Job Opportunities in Various Areas: Tourism, Fishery, Agriculture, etc. Create New Jobs: Construction Sites Rebuild Homes for People Rebuild Schools for Children Rebuild Hospitals for the Sick First restore, then improve. Phuket, Thailand Patong Beach, Thailand
Voices of the Local People "Everyone wants to go back to the island, but they can't as they have no work," said Apichat Lanlongsa, who runs Hi Phi Phi. "In order to get them back, we need to give them food to eat, a place to stay and work to do." We all want to come back. It's the place... where we were born. Phi Phi community chief Manop Kongkowreip Phi Phi Island, Thailand
Suggested Approaches Short-Term Goals Immediate relief and temporary shelters for displaced victims. Restore schools, hospitals, transportation, and other public utilities. Evaluate the safety of the affected area. Restrict rebuilding if the region is too dangerous. Long Term Goals Cleaning up the environment and the affected areas. Help businesses and enterprises to recover by providing loans. Capacity building—Technical assistance to cope with future disasters. Set up national and regional early warning systems. Assist individual household to rebuild homeland. Phuket Town
Tsunami might be… European governments pledged large sums of money to rebuild infrastructure and to fund new schools and orphanages. Replace second-rate structures with more aesthetically pleasing and stronger buildings. Beneficial