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Islamic Studies Courses in Chabot, Ohlone, Missoin and De Anza Colleges Fourth and Fifth Pillars of Islam Fasting and Pilgrimage Designed and taught By.

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Presentation on theme: "Islamic Studies Courses in Chabot, Ohlone, Missoin and De Anza Colleges Fourth and Fifth Pillars of Islam Fasting and Pilgrimage Designed and taught By."— Presentation transcript:

1 Islamic Studies Courses in Chabot, Ohlone, Missoin and De Anza Colleges Fourth and Fifth Pillars of Islam Fasting and Pilgrimage Designed and taught By Hafiz Mohammed Khalid Siddiqi, Ph.D.

2 The Holy Qur’an’s first revelation came in the Holy month of Ramadan, therefore Ramadan is the anniversary of The Holy Qur’an. The Holy Qur’an’s first revelation came in the Holy month of Ramadan, therefore Ramadan is the anniversary of The Holy Qur’an. Ramadan receives its holiness and importance because of the Holy Qur’an, therefore it was selected by Allah swt (God) to be the month of reading Qur’an and fasting. Ramadan receives its holiness and importance because of the Holy Qur’an, therefore it was selected by Allah swt (God) to be the month of reading Qur’an and fasting. Ramadan is the 9 th month in the Islamic calendar year which follows lunar system of beginning a month by sighting a moon. In this system a month has 29 or 30 days and a year 354 days. We lose days yearly. Ramadan is the 9 th month in the Islamic calendar year which follows lunar system of beginning a month by sighting a moon. In this system a month has 29 or 30 days and a year 354 days. We lose days yearly.

3 Allah (God) created Adam to be His Khalifah (Vicegerent) on earth. The main purpose of sending Adam and Eve to the Garden of paradise before sending them to earth, was to provide them with the training on 1. Self Control 2. Keep away from Satan 3. Repent, if You made a mistake. Ramadan fasting is all About self control and taking charge of your life. It is all about freeing ourselves from the Slavery to our habits, lust, and forbidden Desires.

4 O’ You who believe! Fasting is ordained for you as it was ordained for those before you, so that you may learn self-restraint. (Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (should be made up) from days later. For those who can Do it (with hardship), is a ransom, feeding of A needy person. But he that will give more, of his own free will, it is better for him. And it is better for you that you fast, if you only knew. 2/ , please refer to 2/ too.

5 The most successful human being will be the one who can successfully establish just balance Between material and spiritual aspects of life. The pressure of our habits is so strong and sometimes so tremendous that we become Slaves to our habits of overeating, smoking etc; That disturb the balance and as a result we Suffer sometimes obesity of body which results In sickness of mind and spirit both. Fasting restores that balance annually, and Successfully, because it is done collectively.

6 Sawm/Siyam: total abstinence from food, drink, and lawful intimate marital relationship between dawn and dusk. Suhur/Sahri: to take a light Breakfast, or a glass of milk, or juice, or some dates, 90 minutes before sunrise. Imsak: to stop eating Suhur at dawn. Iftar: to break your fast immediately after sunset. I’tikaf: Retreat in a Mosque, in last 10 days of the holy month of Ramadan.

7 Laylatul-Qadr: Night of power, one of the odd Nights in last 10 days of Ramadan, considered to be better than 1000 months in value of devotional deeds. 97/1-5 Sawm/Siyam is also abstaining from every Indecent thought, word, deed. Don’t think, say, or do evil. It is reviewing the past 11 months mistakes and resolving firmly to have next 11 months free from them. It is one month long practice to repel evil with goodness.

8 Fasting during the Holy month of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam. It is Prophet’s tradition to sight the crescent of Ramadan on 29 th of previous month Sha’ban. If the new moon wasn’t visible, for some Reason, 30 days of the month completed. Islamic day begins after sunset and not after Midnight. From the night of sighting the new moon, Taraweeh Prayers of 20 units is offered in Group all through the month of Ramadan, after ‘Isha Prayers,

9 Physical aspects of fasting during Ramadan. Physical aspects of fasting during Ramadan. Intellectual aspects of fasting………… Intellectual aspects of fasting………… Spiritual aspects of fasting…………… Spiritual aspects of fasting…………… Emotional aspects of fasting……… Emotional aspects of fasting……… Social aspects of fasting………… Social aspects of fasting………… Financial aspects of fasting……….. Financial aspects of fasting……….. Traveling, sickness and other conditions in which you are allowed to delay the fasting. Traveling, sickness and other conditions in which you are allowed to delay the fasting. Qada, Kaffarah, Fidyah, Sadaqatul-Fitr. Qada, Kaffarah, Fidyah, Sadaqatul-Fitr. Etiquette of eating in Ramadan. Etiquette of eating in Ramadan.

10 There are six kinds of fasting: 1. Fard: Compulsory, one month fasting of Ramadan. 2. Wajib: Necessary, Nadhr, to vow to fast for a day or days 3. Prophet’s Sunnah: 9th and 10th days of Muharram, 9 th day of Dhul-Hijjah, 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th, of each month. 4. Nafilah: Extra, 6 days of 10 th month, every Monday and Thursday, 15 th day of 8 th month, first 8 days of first month, 5. Makruh: undesirable, continuous fasting 6. Haram: Forbidden, feast days, first day of 10 th month, 10 th day of 12 th Month, 11 th, 12 th, and 13th, of 12 th month.

11 Fifth Pillar of Islam Hajj (pilgrimage) Fifth Pillar of Islam Hajj (pilgrimage) For Hajj are the months well known. If any one undertakes that duty therein, let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj. And whatever good you do, (be sure) Allah knows it. And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best provisions is right conduct. So fear me O you that are wise. 2/ Ifrad, Qiran and Tamattu ’

12 References: 2/158, 189, , 3/96-97, 6/79, , 22/26-38, 37/99-113, 48/27 Stoies: Zamzam, Rebuilding Kaba, Sacrifice, (Qurbani, ‘Udhiyah), Hajj, ‘Umrah, Ihram, Talbiyah, Miqat, Tawaf, Istilam, Maqam (Station) of Abraham, Sa’y, Halq, Taqsir, Mina, ‘Arafat, Muzdalifah, Ramyul-Jamarat, Ifrad, Qiran, Tamattu’.

13 Mecca Mecca Hajj is the fifth and final pillar of Islam. It is the pilgrimage to Mecca, in Saudi Arabia. Hajj takes place in the 12 th month of the Islamic calendar. Every Muslim who is physically and financially able must perform pilgrimage once in their lifetime. Before going on pilgrimage, Muslims are recommended to repay all debts, seek the forgiveness of anyone they may have upset and re-establish good relations with all. Muslims believe that if their Hajj is accepted, all of their sins are washed away.

14 Kaba, Baytullah, Baytul ‘Ateeq Kaba, Baytullah, Baytul ‘Ateeq The first House (of worship) appointed for men was that at Bakka (Mecca), full of blessings and of guidance for all kinds of beings. In it are signs manifest; (for example), the station of Abraham; whoever enters it attains security; Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah, those who can afford the journey; but if any Deny faith, Allah does not stand in need of any of His creatures. 3/96-97

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16 Multazam Multazam

17 Miqat and Ihram The Miqat is a boundary outside Mecca. It is a place where intentions regarding pilgrimage are purified and pilgrims enter into a state of Ihram. Ihram is the changing of the mental state to that which is most sacred. Pilgrims prepare to communicate with God in what is believed to be the world's most sacred ground. All men wear the same clothing: two sheets of plain white, unstitched cotton. This dress is a mark of equality between all humans. It is also a reminder of the shroud Muslims wear in death. For the sake of modesty, women do not have to conform to this dress and may wear any modest clothing and may not cover their face. Miqat and Ihram The Miqat is a boundary outside Mecca. It is a place where intentions regarding pilgrimage are purified and pilgrims enter into a state of Ihram. Ihram is the changing of the mental state to that which is most sacred. Pilgrims prepare to communicate with God in what is believed to be the world's most sacred ground. All men wear the same clothing: two sheets of plain white, unstitched cotton. This dress is a mark of equality between all humans. It is also a reminder of the shroud Muslims wear in death. For the sake of modesty, women do not have to conform to this dress and may wear any modest clothing and may not cover their face.

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19 Ihram is a spiritual state of purity during which the person must not quarrel, commit any act of violence or engage in sexual activity. "The white garments are symbolic of human equality and unity before God, since all the pilgrims are dressed similarly“ then pilgrims repeat the Talbiyah: Ihram is a spiritual state of purity during which the person must not quarrel, commit any act of violence or engage in sexual activity. "The white garments are symbolic of human equality and unity before God, since all the pilgrims are dressed similarly“ then pilgrims repeat the Talbiyah: "Here I am, O God, at Your Command! Here I am at Your Command! You are without associate; Here I am at Thy Command! Your are praise and grace and dominion! You are without associate”. "Here I am, O God, at Your Command! Here I am at Your Command! You are without associate; Here I am at Thy Command! Your are praise and grace and dominion! You are without associate”.

20 Tawaful-Qudum, Tawafuz-Ziyarah, Tawaful-Qudum, Tawafuz-Ziyarah, Tawaful-Widaa’ Tawaful-Widaa’ The most important method of worship in the Kaba is Tawaf (Circumambulation), and Tawaf has to start from a corner of Kaba which Houses the black stone. The black stone came from the Garden of Paradise with Prophet Adam pbuh, to be placed in Kaba, to be the point of beginning of each circle out of seven Circles of Tawaf. The black stone, is touched, Kissed, or pointed with raising hands.

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23 The pilgrim then performs the sa‘y ( Efforts and endeavors). He hurries seven times between two small hills near the Kaba, called Safa and Marwah. This commemorates the search for water by Hagar, Prophet Abraham's Second wife. She strongly believed in Allah And concluded in the light of her unshaken Faith: 1. God has power over everything, He can create water for me if He so willed. 2. He Taught us that He help those who help Themselves. Therefore I must start the search First myself.

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25 With that idea in mind, she looked around and Saw two hills: Safa and Marwa, she thought, this is good point for my search for water, so she climbed Safa, came down, went to Marwa, and continued seven times, until she was fully exhausted, physically. At that point, angel Gabriel appeared and near the feet of baby Ishmael, touched the ground with his wings and water started gushing out forcefully. Hager thought it will flood the area and said Zamzam, Zamzam, (Stop, stop) and made a Boundry. This is how its name became Zamzam.

26 Maqam Ibrahim, Zamzam, Ramyul-Jamarat Before the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah, a person who wants to perform pilgrimage (Hajj) pronounces the intention to perform Umrah while approaching the Miqat. A second intention for the actual Hajj is pronounced at a later period. There are several rites to properly complete the Hajj and Umrah.

27 In Tamattu, after completing the Umrah, the pilgrim changes into everyday clothes. All restrictions of the Ihram are temporarily lifted. On the 8th of Dhul- Hijjah, the pilgrim intends to perform Hajj, and puts on Ihram in the prescribed manner and proceeds to Mina soon after the Fajr Prayers.

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31 Mina Mina On the 8th day of Dhul-Hijjah, by mid morning, Pilgrims go to Mina. This is a large area of land a few kilometers away from the Kaba and is completely tented. Pilgrims stay in Mina for 24 hours, and perform 5 prayers. They also spend their time reciting the Qur'an, learning Hadith, doing devotional deeds, and remembering God. They leave Mina for Arafat on 9 th morning.

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34 Arafat Arafat After Fajr, pilgrims then make their way to the plain of Arafat. Arafat is the most important part of the Hajj. It is a reminder of the Day of Judgment, where Muslims believe humankind will stand on a similar plain waiting for judgment. After Fajr, pilgrims then make their way to the plain of Arafat. Arafat is the most important part of the Hajj. It is a reminder of the Day of Judgment, where Muslims believe humankind will stand on a similar plain waiting for judgment. Muslims spend the entire day in Arafat, praying to God and thinking over the purpose of their lives. It is an extremely emotional time. Muslims spend the entire day in Arafat, praying to God and thinking over the purpose of their lives. It is an extremely emotional time.

35 Pilgrims in Ihram Pilgrims in Ihram

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37 Muzdalifah At sunset without praying Maghrib, pilgrims make their way to Muzdalifah, another massive plain. 3-4 millions pilgrims perform in group Maghrib and ‘Ishaa’ prayers here and spend the night in devotional deeds, under the stars, with no tents or other covering. Hajj is one of the best examples of how humans regardless of race, sex, language or status, can live without discrimination. The pilgrims will also collect pebbles from here for Jamarat.

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40 Jamaraat The 10th day morning, pilgrims come back to Mina. It is the day of ‘Idul-Adha for the rest of the Muslim world. Jamaraat The 10th day morning, pilgrims come back to Mina. It is the day of ‘Idul-Adha for the rest of the Muslim world. They now go to Jamaratul ‘Uqba and throw 7 pebbles. The Jamaraat are three tall, stone pillars which represent Satan. The pillars remind pilgrims of the three temptations that were presented to Abraham as he was getting ready to sacrifice his son. Just as Abraham resisted the temptations, pilgrims symbolically reject Satan and all of life's temptations, by throwing pebbles at the pillars. They now go to Jamaratul ‘Uqba and throw 7 pebbles. The Jamaraat are three tall, stone pillars which represent Satan. The pillars remind pilgrims of the three temptations that were presented to Abraham as he was getting ready to sacrifice his son. Just as Abraham resisted the temptations, pilgrims symbolically reject Satan and all of life's temptations, by throwing pebbles at the pillars.

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42 Farewell Tawaf The final act of Hajj is the farewell Tawaf. After this, the Hajj is complete. Many people then visit the city of Medina, which became Muhammad's pbuh home city. The Hajj is an act of remembrance of the Prophet Abraham who is revered in Islam. Abraham is regarded as the Father of the Prophets, from whose lineage came Moses, Jesus and Muhammad pbut, Both Mecca and Medina are extremely sacred lands for Muslims, because of their association with Abraham and Muhammad pbut.

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44 Shaving or cutting the hair Once the pilgrim has completed the 10th day Jamaratul-‘Uqbah rite, they cut or shave their hair and in doing so leave the state of Ihram physically. It is recommended that men shave their heads completely, but women need only cut a lock of hair. This is symbolic of being reborn and cleansing the body as well as soul. Pilgrims may now wear normal clothes and wear scent, which they were not allowed to do in the natural state of Ihram.The next two or three nights will be spent at Mina, on each day of which pilgrims will return to the Jamaraat and throw pebbles at the pillars. The time is also spent in praying, reading the Qur'an and contemplating.

45 The Mosque of the Prophet pbuh, in Madina The Mosque of the Prophet pbuh, in Madina

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