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Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 17 Hygiene.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 17 Hygiene."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 17 Hygiene

2 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Hygiene: practices that promote health through personal cleanliness Activities that foster hygiene –Bathing; cleaning and maintaining fingernails and toenails –Performing oral care –Shampooing and grooming hair –Maintaining hearing aids and eyeglasses Hygiene

3 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Integumentary System Components Skin Mucous membrane Hair Fingernails, toenails Teeth

4 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous layer Skin

5 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cross-Section of the Skin

6 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Line body passages such as the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems Mucous membrane also lines the conjunctiva of the eye Goblet cells in the mucous membranes secrete mucus, a slimy substance that keeps the membranes soft and moist Mucous Membrane

7 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Made up of keratin Forms from cells at the base of a single follicle Helps to prevent heat loss Sebaceous glands in the hair follicles release sebum, an oily secretion Hair

8 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Fingernails and toenails are made of keratin, which in concentrated amounts gives them their tough texture Normal nails are thin, pink, and smooth Fingernails and toenails provide some protection to the digits Nails

9 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Present beneath the gums at birth Contain the outer covering, enamel, a keratin structure Exposed portion of each tooth: crown Portion within the gum: root Adults: 28 to 32 permanent teeth Saliva: keeps the teeth clean and inhibits bacterial growth Teeth

10 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Sugar, plaque, and bacteria may eventually erode the tooth enamel, causing caries Tartar leads to gingivitis while gum inflammation may cause periodontal disease Common Dental Problems

11 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Bathing Uses a cleansing agent such as soap and water to remove sweat, oil, dirt, and microorganisms from the skin Advantages of bathing –Eliminates body odor; reduces the potential for infection –Stimulates circulation; provides a refreshed and relaxed feeling; improves self-image therapeutic bath table 17-2

12 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Types of Bathing Partial bathing Bed bath –Towel bath –Bag bath

13 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Is the following statement true or false? Partial bathing is most common in young adults.

14 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Partial bathing is most common in older clients.

15 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Advantages of Bed Bath

16 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Giving a Towel Bath

17 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Is the following statement true or false? Towel bath is very expensive.

18 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Towel bath saves expense.

19 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Shaving Removes unwanted body hair Accomplished with an electric or a safety razor The use of safety razor may not be possible in the following situations: 17-2 –If the client has a face injury –If the client cannot shave

20 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Shaving a Client’s Face

21 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Oral Hygiene Brushing and flossing the teeth Dentures and bridges require special cleaning and care Oral hygiene in unconscious clients –Prevents aspiration of oral hygiene products and water

22 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Advantages of Electric Toothbrushes

23 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Optional substances for oral care table 17-4

24 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Hair Care Apply a conditioner to loosen tangles Use oil on the hair if it is dry Braid the hair to help prevent tangles Brush the hair slowly to increase circulation of sebum Use a wide-toothed comb, combing from end to crown Use shampoo to clean hair

25 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nail Care Keeping the fingernails and toenails clean and trimmed Nail care should be provided with extreme caution for the following clients: –Clients with diabetes –Clients with impaired circulation –Client with thick nails

26 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Visual and Hearing Devices Eyeglasses and hearing aids improve communication and socialization –Eyeglasses –Contact lenses –Artificial eyes –Hearing aids –Infrared listening devices

27 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Types of Contact Lenses

28 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Examples of Hearing Aids In the ear Behind the ear Remote controlled (Refer to Figure in the textbook.)

29 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations Poor hygiene and grooming in older adults: signs of visual impairments, functional changes, dementia, depression, abuse, or neglect Older adults do not need to bathe as frequently as younger adults Use mild, super fatted, non perfumed soap Oils are not used in showers or bathtubs due to increased risk for falls

30 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) For older adults with limited range of motion or mobility, provide: –Long-handled bath sponges or hand-held shower attachments –Nonskid strips on the floor of bathtubs –Showers with strategically placed handles and grab bars; a tub/shower seat

31 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) Due to increased susceptibility to dry skin, tears and scratches: –Avoid skin care products containing alcohol, perfumes that aggravate dry skin –Nails: keep trimmed and smooth –Feet: regularly inspect condition Modify clothing to promote independence Tooth loss: periodontal disease

32 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question Is the following statement true or false? Older adults need to bathe frequently because they perspire a lot.

33 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer False. Older adults do not need to bathe frequently because they have diminished perspiration and sebum production.


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