317.1 IntroductionSheet metal processes involve plane stress loadings and lower forces than bulk formingAlmost all sheet metal forming is considered to be secondary processingThe main categories of sheet metal forming are:ShearingBendingDrawing
417.2 Shearing OperationsShearing- mechanical cutting of material without the formation of chips or the use of burning or meltingBoth cutting blades are straightCurved blades may be used to produce different shapesBlankingPiercingNotchingTrimming
5Shearing OperationsFracture and tearing begin at the weakest point and proceed progressively or intermittently to the next-weakest locationResults in a rough and ragged edgePunch and die must have proper alignment and clearanceSheared edges can be produced that require no further finishing
6Shearing OperationsFigure 17-1 Simple blanking with a punch and die.
9Types of ShearingSimple shearing- sheets of metal are sheared along a straight lineSlitting- lengthwise shearing process that is used to cut coils of sheet metal into several rolls of narrower widthFigure 17-5 Method of smooth shearing a rod by putting it into compression during shearing.Figure 17-6 A 3-m (10ft) power shear for 6.5 mm (1/4-in.) steel. (Courtesy of Cincinnati Incorporated, Cincinnati, OH.)
10Shearing OperationsFigure 17-2 (Left) (Top) Conventionally sheared surface showing the distinct regions of deformation and fracture and (bottom) magnified view of the sheared edge. (Courtesy of Feintool Equipment Corp., Cincinnati, OH.)
11Piercing and BlankingPiercing and blanking are shearing operations where a part is removed from sheet material by forcing a shaped punch through the sheet and into a shaped dieBlanking- the piece being punched out becomes the workpiecePiercing- the punchout is the scrap and the remaining strip is the workpieceFigure 17-8 (Above) (Left to Right) Piercing, lancing, and blanking precede the forming of the final ashtray. The small round holes assist positioning and alignment.Figure 17-7 Schematic showing the difference between piercing and blanking.
12Fine Blanking Operations Fine Blanking - the piece being punched out becomes the workpiece and pressure pads are used to smooth edges in shearingFigure 17-3 (Top) Method of obtaining a smooth edge in shearing by using a shaped pressure plate to put the metal into localized compression and a punch and opposing punch descending in unison.
13Shearing OperationsFigure 17-4 Fineblanked surface of the same component as shown in Figure (Courtesy of Feintool Equipment Corp., Cincinnati, OH.)
14Types of Piercing and Blanking Lancing- piercing operation that forms either a line cut or holePerforating- piercing a large number of closely spaced holesNotching- removes segments from along the edge of an existing productNibbling- a contour is progressively cut by producing a series of overlapping slits or notches
16Types of Piercing and Blanking Shaving- finishing operation in which a small amount of metal is sheared away from the edge of an already blanked partCutoff- a punch and a die are used to separate a stamping or other product from a strip of stockDinking- used to blank shapes from low- strength materials such as rubber, fiber, or cloth
17Sheet-metal Shaving Operations Figure The dinking process.Figure The shaving process.
19Tools and Dies for Piercing and Blanking Basic components of a piercing and blanking die set are: punch, die, and stripper platePunches and dies should be properly aligned so that a uniform clearance is maintained around the entire borderPunches are normally made from low-distortion or air-hardenable tool steelFigure The basic components of piercing and blanking dies.
20Blanking OperationsFigure Blanking with a square-faced punch (left) and one containing angular shear (right). Note the difference in maximum force and contact stroke. The total work (the are under the curve) is the same for both processes.
21Blanking OperationsFigure (Below) Typical die set having two alignment guideposts. (Courtesy of Danly IEM, Cleveland, OH.)Figure (Above) A piercing and blanking setup using self-contained subpress tool units. (Courtesy of Strippit Division, Houdaille Industries, Inc., Akron, NY.)
22Progressive Die SetsProgressive die sets- two or more sets of punches and dies mounted in tandemTransfer dies move individual parts from operation to operation within a single pressCompound dies combine processes sequentially during a single stroke of the ramFigure Progressive piercing and blanking die for making a square washer. Note that the punches are of different length.
23Design for Piercing and Blanking Design rulesDiameters of pierced holes should not be less than the thickness of the metal with a minimum 0f 0.3 mm (0.025”)Minimum distance between holes or the edge of the stock should be at least equal to the metal thicknessThe width of any projection or slot should be at least 1 times the metal thickness and never less than 2.5 mm (3/32”)Keep tolerances as large as possibleArrange the pattern of parts on the strip to minimize scrap
25Clearance Calculation The recommended clearance is:C = atWhere c – clearance, in (mm); a – allowance; and t = stock thickness, in (mm).Allowance a is determined according to type of metal.From Mikell P. Groover “Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing”.
26Design Die and Punch Sizes For a round blank of diameter Db is determined as:Blank punch diameter = Db - 2cBlank die diameter = DbFor a round hole (piercing) of diameter Dh is determined as:Hole punch diameter = DhHole die diameter = Db + 2c
27Cutting ForcesCutting forces are used to determine size of the press needed.F = StLWhere S – shear strength of the sheet metal, lb/in2 (Mpa); t – sheet thickness in. (mm); and L – length of the cut edge, in. (mm).In blanking, punching, slotting, and similar operations, L is the perimeter length of blank or hole being cut.Note: the equation assumes that the entire cut along sheared edge length is made at the same time. In this case, the cutting force is a maximum.
28Angular Clearancefor slug or blank to drop through the die, the die opening must have an angular clearance of 0.25 to 1.50 on each side.
29Example for Calculating Clearance and Force Round disk of 3.0” dia. is to be blanked from a half-hard cold-rolled sheet of 1/8” with shear strength = 45,000 lb/in2. Determine (a) punch and die diameters, and (b) blanking force.(a).From table , a = 0.075,so clearance c = 0.075(0.125) = ”.Die opening diameter = 3.0”Punch diameter = 3 – 2(0.0094) = in(b)Assume the entire perimeter of the part is blanked at one time.L = p Db = 3.14(3) = 9.426”F = 45,000(9.426)(0.125) = 53,021 lb
30Design ExampleFigure Method for making a simple washer in a compound piercing and blanking die. Part is blanked (a) and subsequently pierced (b) in the same stroke. The blanking punch contains the die for piercing.
3117.3 BendingBending is the plastic deformation of metals about a linear axis with little or no change in the surface areaForming- multiple bends are made with a single dieDrawing and stretching- axes of deformation are not linear or are not independentSpringback is the “unbending” that occurs after a metal has been deformedFigure (Top) Nature of a bend in sheet metal showing tension on the outside and compression on the inside. (Bottom) The upper portion of the bend region, viewed from the side, shows how the center portion will thin more than the edges.
33Angle Bending (Bar Folder and Press Brake) Bar folders make angle bends up to 150 degrees in sheet metalPress brakes make bends in heavier sheets or more complex bends in thin materialFigure Press brake dies can form a variety of angles and contours. (Courtesy of Cincinnati Incorporated, Cincinnati, OH.)
34Bar FolderFigure Phantom section of a bar folder, showing position and operation of internal components. (Courtesy of Niagara Machine and Tool Works, Buffalo, N.Y.)
35Press BrakeFigure (Left) Press brake with CNC gauging system. (Courtesy of DiAcro Division, Acrotech Inc., Lake City, MN.) (Right) Close-up view of press brake dies forming corrugations. (Courtesy of Cincinnati Incorporated, Cincinnati, OH.)
36Design for BendingSeveral factors are important in specifying a bending operationDetermine the smallest bend radius that can be formed without cracking the metalMetal ductilityThickness of materialFigure Relationship between the minimum bend radius (relative to thickness) and the ductility of the metal being bent (as measured by the reduction in area in a uniaxial tensile test).
37Considerations for Bending If the punch radius is large and the bend angle is shallow, large amounts of springback are often encounteredThe sharper the bend, the more likely the surfaces will be stressed beyond the yield pointFigure Bends should be made with the bend axis perpendicular to the rolling direction. When intersecting bends are made, both should be at an angle to the rolling direction, as shown.
38Design Considerations Determine the dimensions of a flat blank that will produce a bent part of the desired precisionMetal tends to thin when it is bentFigure One method of determining the starting blank size (L) for several bending operations. Due to thinning, the product will lengthen during forming. l1, l2, and l3 are the desired product dimensions. See table to determine D based on size of radius R where t is the stock thickness.
39Air-Bend, Bottoming, and Coining Dies Bottoming dies contact and compress the full area within the toolingAngle of the bend is set by the geometry of the toolingAir bend dies produce the desired geometry by simple three-point bendingIf bottoming dies go beyond the full-contact position, the operation is similar to coiningFigure Comparison of air-bend (left) and bottoming (right) press brake dies. With the air-bend die, the amount of bend is controlled by the bottoming position of the upper die.
40Roll Bending Roll bending is a continuous form of three- point bending Plates, sheets, beams, pipesFigure (Left) Schematic of the roll-bending process; (right) the roll bending of an I-beam section. Note how the material is continuously subjected to three-point bending. (Courtesy of Buffalo Forge Company, Buffalo, NY.)
41Draw Bending, Compression Bending, and Press Bending Figure (a) Draw bending, in which the form block rotates; (b) compression bending, in which a moving tool compresses the workpiece against a stationary form; (c) press bending, where the press ram moves the bending form.
42Tube BendingKey parameters: outer diameter of the tube, wall thickness, and radius of the bendFigure (a) Schematic representation of the cold roll-forming process being used to convert sheet or plate into tube. (b) Some typical shapes produced by roll forming.
43Roll FormingRoll forming is a process by which a metal strip is progressively bent as it passes through a series of forming rollsOnly bending takes place during this process, and all bends are parallel to one anotherA wide variety of shapes can be produced, but changeover, setup, and adjustment may take several hoursFigure Eight-roll sequence for the roll forming of a box channel. (Courtesy of the Aluminum Association, Washington, DC.)
44Seaming and FlangingSeaming is a bending operation that can be used to join the ends of sheet metal in some form of mechanical interlockCommon products include cans, pails, drums, and containersFlanges can be rolled on sheet metal in a similar manner as seamsFigure Various types of seams used on sheet metal.
45Straightening Straightening or flattening is the opposite of bending Done before subsequent forming to ensure the use of flat or straight materialVarious methods to straighten materialRoll straightening (Roller levering)Stretcher leveling- material is mechanically gripped and stretch until it reaches the desired flatnessFigure Method of straightening rod or sheet by passing it through a set of straightening rolls. For rods, another set of rolls is used to provide straightening in the transverse direction.
46Engineering Analysis of Bending Bending radius R is normally specified on the inside of the part, rather than at the neutral axis. The bending radius is determined by the radius on the tooling used for bending.Bending Allowance: If the bend radius is small relative to sheet thickness, the metal tends to stretch during bending.BA = 2pA(R + Kbat)/360Where BA – bend allowance, in. (mm); A - bend angle, degrees; R – bend radius, in. (mm); t – sheet thickness; and Kba - factor to estimate stretching. According to , if R < 2t, Kba = 0.33; and if R>=2t, Kba =0.5. : Hoffman, E.G., Fundamentals of Tool Design, 2nd ed.
47Engineering Analysis of Bending Spring back: When the bending pressure is removed at the end of deformation, elastic energy remains in the bend part, causing it to recover partially toward its original shape.SB = (A’ – Ab’)/Ab’Where SB – springback; A’ – included angle of sheet-metal part; and Ab’ – included angle of bending tool, degrees.From Mikell P. Groover “Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing”.
48Engineering Analysis of Bending Bending Force: The force required to perform bending depends on the geometry of the punch and die and the strength, thickness, and width of the sheet metal. The maximum bending force can be estimated by means of the following equation based on bending of a simple beam:F = (KbfTSwt2)/DWhere F – bending force, lb (N),; TS – tensile strength of the sheet metal, lb/in2. (Mpa); t – sheet thickness, in. (mm); and D – die opening dimension. Kbf – a constant that counts for differences in an actual bending processes. For V-bending Kbf =1.33, and for edge bending Kbf =0.33
49Example for Sheet-metal Bending Metal to be bent with a modulus of elasticity E = 30x106 lb/in2., yield strength Y = 40,000lb/in2 , and tensile strength TS = 65,000 lb/in2. Determine (a) starting blank size, and (b) bending force if V-die will be used with a die opening dimension D = 1.0in.(a)W = 1.75’, and the length of the part is: BA.R/t = 0.187/0.125 = 1.5 < 2.0, so Kba = 0.33For an included angle A’ = 1200, then A = 600BA = 2pA(R + Kbat)/360 =2p60( x 0.125)/360 = 0.239”Length of the bank is = 2.739”(b) Force:F = (KbfTSwt2)/D= 1.33 (65,000)(1.75)(0.125)2/1.0= 2,364 lb
50Homework Review questions (page 457 - 458): 6, 10, 20, 26 Problems (page 458):1: a, b