Presentation on theme: "Consumer Attitude Formation and Change"— Presentation transcript:
1 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Prof.C.Vignali PhDConsumer Attitude Formation and Change
2 AttitudesA learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.
3 What are Attitudes? The attitude “object” Attitudes are a learned predispositionAttitudes have consistencyAttitudes occur within a situation
4 Table 8.1 Examples of How Situations Might Influence Attitudes PRODUCT/SERVICESITUATIONATTITUDECoppertone Oil Free SunscreenActive sports in the sun“It sounds like a good idea to use an oil free sunscreen when involved in summer sports activities.”Cannon Color PrintersOld PC printer ceases to work“Now that they have gone down in price so much, it’s time for me to buy a color printer.”Hilton Resorts and CasinosExhausted, time or a weekend get-a-way“I worked hard; I earned a couple of days away to relax.”Altoids MintsBad taste in one’s mouth“I really need a strong mint after I drink a large cup of coffee.”
5 Table 8.1 continued PRODUCT/SERVICE SITUATION ATTITUDE Sports Illustrated for KidsIt’s my nephew’s birthday“He loves sports; I should get a one-year subscription.”Omega Seamaster ProfessionalOld wristwatch is lost“Now I have an opportunity to get the watch James Bond wears.”Claritin-D 24 HourSummer allergy“I need something that really works. I’ve heard good things about Claritin.”Kraft Free Salad DressingGoing on a diet“I really should try using more fat-free products.”
6 Structural Models of Attitudes Tricomponent Attitude ModelMuliattribute Attitude ModelsThe Trying-to-Consume ModelAttitude-toward-the-ad Model
7 Figure 8.1 A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model ConationAffectCognition
8 The Tricomponent Model Cognitive ComponentThe knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources.Affective ComponentA consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand.Conative ComponentThe likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object
9 Figure 8.2 A Consumer’s Belief System for Two Brands of Pocket Digital Organizers PRODUCTPOCKET DIGITAL ORGANIZERSBRAND3Com PalmPilotATTRIBUTESEase of useHandwriting featurePC backupOther featuresBELIEFSKnown to be a snap to useA little effort to learn a few rulesSimple one buttonDoesn’t have built-in drawing featureEVALUATIONS(++++)(+++)(++)(-)
10 Figure 8.2 continued PRODUCT POCKET DIGITAL ORGANIZERS BRAND Casio CassiopeiaATTRIBUTESEase of useHandwriting featurePC backupOther featuresBELIEFSA longer learning curveEasy, but a little learningSome learningHas drawing and voice-record featuresEVALUATIONS(+)(++)(++)(+++)
11 Compared to other after shave products,Old Spice is: Table 8.2 Selected Evaluations Scale Used to Gauge Consumers’ Attitudes toward Old Spice After ShaveCompared to other after shave products,Old Spice is:GoodPositivePleasantAppealingBadNegativeUnpleasantUnappealing
12 Table 8.3 Measuring Consumers’ Feelings and Emotions with Regard to Using Old Spice After Shave For the past 10 days you have had a chance to try Old Spice After Shave. We would appreciate it if you would identify how your face felt after using the product during this 10-day trial period. For each of the words below, we would appreciate it if you would mark with an “X” in the box corresponding to how your face felt after using Old Spice during the past 10 days.VERYNOT AT ALLMy face felt relaxedMy face felt handsomeMy face felt tightMy face felt smoothMy face felt suppleMy face felt cleanMy face felt refreshedMy face felt revivedMy face felt pamperedMy face felt renewed[ ][ ][ ][ ][ ]
13 Table 8.4 Two Examples of Intention-to-Buy Scales Which of the following statements best describes the chance that you will buy Old Spice the next time you purchase an after shave product?___I definitely will buy it.___I probably will buy it.___I am uncertain whether I will buy it.___I probably will not buy it.___I definitely will not buy it.How likely are you to buy Old Spice After Shave during the next three months?___Very likely___Likely___Unlikely___Very unlikely
14 Multiattribute Attitude Models Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.
15 Multiattribute Attitude Models The attitude-toward-object modelAttitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluationsThe attitude-toward-behavior modelIs the attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object, rather than the attitude toward the object itselfTheory-of-reasoned-action modelA comprehensive, integrative model of attitudes
16 Attitude-Toward-Behavior Model A model that proposes that a consumer’s attitude toward a specific behavior is a function of how strongly he or she believes that the action will lead to a specific outcome (either favorable or unfavorable).
17 Theory of Reasoned Action A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship among attitudes,intentions, and behavior.
18 Figure 8.3 A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned Action Beliefs that the behavior leads to certain outcomesEvaluation of the outcomesBeliefs that specific referents think I should or should not perform the behaviorMotivation to comply with the specific referentsAttitude toward the behaviorSubjective normIntentionBehavior
19 Theory of Trying to Consume An attitude theory designed to account for the many cases where the action or outcome is not certain but instead reflects the consumer’s attempt to consume (or purchase).
20 Table 8.5 Selected Examples of Potential Impediments That Might Impact on Trying POTENTIAL PERSONAL IMPEDIMENTS“I wonder whether my fingernails will be longer by the time of my wedding.”“I want to try to lose fifteen pounds by next summer.”“I’m going to try to get tickets for a Broadway show for your birthday.”“I’m going to attempt to give up smoking by my birthday.”“I am going to increase how often I go to the gym from two to four times a week.”“Tonight, I’m not going to have dessert at the restaurant.”POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPEDIMENTS“The first ten people to call in will receive a free T-shirt.”“Sorry, the shoes didn’t come in this shipment from Italy.”“There are only three bottles of champagne in our stockroom. You better come in sometime today.”“I am sorry. We cannot serve you. We are closing the restaurant because of a problem with the oven.”
21 Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model A model that proposes that a consumer forms various feelings (affects) and judgments (cognitions) as the result of exposure to an advertisement, which, in turn, affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.
22 Figure 8.4 A Conception of the Relationship among Elements in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model Exposure to an AdJudgments about the Ad (Cognition)Feelings from the Ad (Affect)Beliefs about the BrandAttitude toward the AdAttitude toward the Brand
23 Issues in Attitude Formation How attitudes are learnedSources of influence on attitude formationPersonality factorsCognitionAffectAttitude
24 Strategies of Attitude Change Changing the Basic Motivational FunctionAssociating the Product With a Special Group, Event,or CauseResolving Two Conflicting AttitudesAltering Components of the Multiattribute ModelChanging Beliefs About Competitors’ BrandsThe Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
25 Functional ApproachAn attitude-change theory that classifies attitudes in terms of four functions: utilitarian, ego-defensive value-expressive, and knowledge functions.
26 Four Basic Motivational Functions The Utilitarian FunctionThe Ego-defensive FunctionThe Value-expressive FunctionThe Knowledge Function
27 Utilitarian FunctionA component of the functional approach to attitude-change theory that suggests consumers hold certain attitudes partly because of the brand’s utility.
28 Ego-Defensive Function A component of the functional approach to attitude-change that suggests that consumers want to protect their self-concepts from inner feelings of doubt.
29 Value-Expressive Function A component of the functional approach to attitude-change theory that suggests that attitudes express consumers’ general values, lifestyles, and outlook.
30 Knowledge FunctionA component of the functional approach to attitude-change theory that suggests that consumers have a strong need to know and understand the people and things with which they come into contact.
31 Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model Changing the Relative Evaluation of AttributesChanging Brand BeliefsAdding an AttributeChanging the Overall Brand Rating
32 Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) A theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective.
33 The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) InvolvementHIGHLOWCentral RoutePeripheral RouteMessage Arguments Influence AttitudesPeripheral Cues Influence Attitudes
35 Cognitive Dissonance Theory Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object.
36 Postpurchase Dissonance Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer has made a purchase commitment. Consumers resolve this dissonance through a variety of strategies designed to confirm the wisdom of their choice.
37 Attribution TheoryA theory concerned with how people assign casualty to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behavior.
38 Issues in Attribution Theory Self-perception TheoryFoot-In-The-Door TechniqueAttributions Toward OthersAttributions Toward ThingsHow We Test Our Attributions
39 Self-Perception Theory A theory that suggests that consumers develop attitudes by reflecting on their own behavior.
40 Defensive Attribution A theory that suggests consumers are likely to accept credit for successful outcomes (internal attribution) and to blame other persons or products for failure (external attribution).
41 Foot-in-the-Door Technique A theory of attitude change that suggests individuals form attitudes that are consistent with their own prior behavior.
42 Criteria for Causal Attributions DistinctivenessConsistency Over TimeConsistency Over ModalityConsensus