2 Types of SentencesSimpleCompoundComplexCompound Complex
3 Clauses Word --> Phrase --> Clause --> Sentence Clauses have a verb - one main verb per clauseFinite Clauses - Verb inflected for tenseNon-FiniteInfinitiveParticipial, including Gerunds
4 Types of Embedded Sentences Subordinate Clauses (Adverbial)Indicate time, place, manner, cause, or conditionUsually preceded by a subordinatorRelative Clauses (Adjectival)Relative PronounsRestrictive vs. non-restrictive relative clausesComplement Clauses (Nominal)
5 Complement Clauses Appear as an NP Can be the subject of the sentence [That you like bananas] is surprising.Can be an objectI know [that you like bananas.]Can be replaced by a pronoun(It is surprising; I know it.)That is a complementizer.
6 Direct DiscourseDirect discourse is when a person is quoted: He said, “You took my cheese.”Indirect Discourse is when a person is paraphrased. He said that you took my cheese.In direct discourse, time, place, and participants are tied to the original utterance.She said, “The treasure is buried here.”He said, “Is your party tomorrow.”
7 Interrogative Complement Clauses One of the NPs in the complement clause is replaced by an interrogative pronounExamples:I know [who stole my cheese].I heard [what you said].I wonder [how they did that].Notice that the WH-word appears at the beginning of the clause and that no question mark is used.
9 Non-Finite Clause: Infinitives Introduced by to or for to.I want [to buy the cheese].[To err] is human.[For him to err] is terrible.Can also appear without to:I heard him break the cookie jar.He made me eat my spinach.Can be nominal, adverbial (I bought it [to surprise you].), or adjectival (He was the last person [to talk to me.]). See page 357.
10 SVPNPMVPNPSNMVVPNPMVNPNChris wants (Chris) take my cheese
14 To and For/To Infinitives Sentences with infinitive clauses as subject use for if the subject is part of the clauseFor you to say that is shocking.To say that is shocking.Sentences with for/to clauses as direct objects are less direct than those with toShe sent him to buy supplies.She sent for him to buy supplies.She asked him to leave.She asked for him to leave.
15 Bare vs. to InfinitivesTied to degree of likelihood that event took placeShe made him shaveShe let him shave--> He shavedShe asked him to shave.She wanted him to shave.--> He might not have shaved.
16 Types of Verbs Taking Complement Clause Modality Verbs – want, try, begin, fixing toManipulative Verbs – make, force, beg, order, let, ask, tellPerception – see, hear, watchCognition – know, understand, hope, thinkUtterance – say, reveal, announceP-C-U verbs tend to take that complements
19 Present Participial Clauses AdverbialWalking to work, I spotted an eagle.While walking to work, I spotted an eagle. (elliptical subordinate clause)Many people having seen the eagle, I am now satisfied.AdjectivalThe people standing on the street were watching the eagle.Gerund (Nominal)Watching the eagle was fun.
20 Usage: Dangling Modifiers Dangling InfinitivesEager to work, my tools lay before me.To feel rewarded, a job must be well-paying.Dangling Present ParticipleFlying high in the sky, I spotted an eagle.Standing on a cliff, the ocean inspired me.Dangling Past ParticipleHard boiled, I took the eggs out of the water.Fed well, the entertainment began.Sauced and seasoned, I tasted the entrée.
21 Nominative AbsolutesActually Adverbials, but still called “nominative”Tensed form of the verb or auxiliary BE is deletedExamples: (pp )His mind on the test, Bill entered the classroom.The children fed and put to bed, Pat and Chris relaxed.My hair a mess, I wandered into the classroom.Eyes gleaming, they ran into the playground.They ran into the playground, their eyes ablaze.
22 Practice: Adverbial, Adjectival, or Gerund The children playing in the street should be warned.Visiting professors can be boring. (trick question)Whistling loudly, I walked into the dark.Educated as to the facts, the citizen voted.My jumping into the lake amused my family.The test given to the students was easy.Pumped, the kids began the contest.
23 Adverbial Present Participle I spotted eagleanwalkingtowork
24 Adverbial Present Participle VPNPMVPADVPNPSPROMVDETNVPNPMVPREPPPROI spotted an eagle (I) walking to work
25 Adjectival Present Participle I spotted eagleanwalkingonstreetthe
26 Adjectival Present Participle VPNPMVPNPADJPSPROMVDETNVPNPMVPREPPI spotted an eagle (eagle) walking on the street