Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Finite Clauses.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Finite Clauses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Finite Clauses

2 Types of Sentences Simple Compound Complex Compound Complex

3 Clauses Word --> Phrase --> Clause --> Sentence
Clauses have a verb - one main verb per clause Finite Clauses - Verb inflected for tense Non-Finite Infinitive Participial, including Gerunds

4 Types of Embedded Sentences
Subordinate Clauses (Adverbial) Indicate time, place, manner, cause, or condition Usually preceded by a subordinator Relative Clauses (Adjectival) Relative Pronouns Restrictive vs. non-restrictive relative clauses Complement Clauses (Nominal)

5 Complement Clauses Appear as an NP Can be the subject of the sentence
[That you like bananas] is surprising. Can be an object I know [that you like bananas.] Can be replaced by a pronoun (It is surprising; I know it.) That is a complementizer.

6 Direct Discourse Direct discourse is when a person is quoted: He said, “You took my cheese.” Indirect Discourse is when a person is paraphrased. He said that you took my cheese. In direct discourse, time, place, and participants are tied to the original utterance. She said, “The treasure is buried here.” He said, “Is your party tomorrow.”

7 Interrogative Complement Clauses
One of the NPs in the complement clause is replaced by an interrogative pronoun Examples: I know [who stole my cheese]. I heard [what you said]. I wonder [how they did that]. Notice that the WH-word appears at the beginning of the clause and that no question mark is used.

8 Non-Finite Clauses

9 Non-Finite Clause: Infinitives
Introduced by to or for to. I want [to buy the cheese]. [To err] is human. [For him to err] is terrible. Can also appear without to: I heard him break the cookie jar. He made me eat my spinach. Can be nominal, adverbial (I bought it [to surprise you].), or adjectival (He was the last person [to talk to me.]). See page 357.

10 S VP NP MVP NP S N MV VP NP MV NP N Chris wants (Chris) take my cheese

11 to take cheese my Chris wants

12 S VP NP MVP NP S N MV VP NP MV NP N Chris wants Bill take my cheese

13 Bill to take cheese Chris wants my

14 To and For/To Infinitives
Sentences with infinitive clauses as subject use for if the subject is part of the clause For you to say that is shocking. To say that is shocking. Sentences with for/to clauses as direct objects are less direct than those with to She sent him to buy supplies. She sent for him to buy supplies. She asked him to leave. She asked for him to leave.

15 Bare vs. to Infinitives Tied to degree of likelihood that event took place She made him shave She let him shave --> He shaved She asked him to shave. She wanted him to shave. --> He might not have shaved.

16 Types of Verbs Taking Complement Clause
Modality Verbs – want, try, begin, fixing to Manipulative Verbs – make, force, beg, order, let, ask, tell Perception – see, hear, watch Cognition – know, understand, hope, think Utterance – say, reveal, announce P-C-U verbs tend to take that complements

17 Reminder: Non-Finite Clauses
Infinitives To-Infinitives For-To-Infinitives Bare Infinities Participles Present Participial Clauses Past Participial Clauses

18 Participial Clauses

19 Present Participial Clauses
Adverbial Walking to work, I spotted an eagle. While walking to work, I spotted an eagle. (elliptical subordinate clause) Many people having seen the eagle, I am now satisfied. Adjectival The people standing on the street were watching the eagle. Gerund (Nominal) Watching the eagle was fun.

20 Usage: Dangling Modifiers
Dangling Infinitives Eager to work, my tools lay before me. To feel rewarded, a job must be well-paying. Dangling Present Participle Flying high in the sky, I spotted an eagle. Standing on a cliff, the ocean inspired me. Dangling Past Participle Hard boiled, I took the eggs out of the water. Fed well, the entertainment began. Sauced and seasoned, I tasted the entrée.

21 Nominative Absolutes Actually Adverbials, but still called “nominative” Tensed form of the verb or auxiliary BE is deleted Examples: (pp ) His mind on the test, Bill entered the classroom. The children fed and put to bed, Pat and Chris relaxed. My hair a mess, I wandered into the classroom. Eyes gleaming, they ran into the playground. They ran into the playground, their eyes ablaze.

22 Practice: Adverbial, Adjectival, or Gerund
The children playing in the street should be warned. Visiting professors can be boring. (trick question) Whistling loudly, I walked into the dark. Educated as to the facts, the citizen voted. My jumping into the lake amused my family. The test given to the students was easy. Pumped, the kids began the contest.

23 Adverbial Present Participle
I spotted eagle an wal ki ng to work

24 Adverbial Present Participle
VP NP MVP ADVP NP S PRO MV DET N VP NP MV PREPP PRO I spotted an eagle (I) walking to work

25 Adjectival Present Participle
I spotted eagle an wal ki ng on street the

26 Adjectival Present Participle
VP NP MVP NP ADJP S PRO MV DET N VP NP MV PREPP I spotted an eagle (eagle) walking on the street

27 sing ing his song that We enjoyed

28 S VP NP MVP NP S PRO MV VP NP MV NP N We enjoyed he singing that song (his)

Download ppt "Finite Clauses."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google