Presentation on theme: "Morphology and Syntax Deviations from neutral word order."— Presentation transcript:
Morphology and Syntax Deviations from neutral word order
Word order in English The subject is the NP immediately preceding the verb The subject is the NP immediately preceding the verb The object (if there is one) is the first NP immediately following the verb The object (if there is one) is the first NP immediately following the verb If there is an indirect object, this immediately precedes the direct object if it (the indirect object) is an NP, and it follows the direct object if it is a PP. If there is an indirect object, this immediately precedes the direct object if it (the indirect object) is an NP, and it follows the direct object if it is a PP. But...
... this is different in sentences with a questioned phrase: Who will go the cinema tonight? Which film did the critic review yesterday? Who did Sean give the tickets? Questioned phrases (Wh-phrases) must be in the first position of the sentence.
Wh-movement [Which film] did the critic review e yesterday *Which film did the critic review The Intruder [To which man] did you give your tickets e yesterday?
Where do Wh-phrases go? If this is the general structure for sentences: S NP VP then there does not seem to be any room for Wh- phrases in front of the subject.
There also does not seem to be any room for complementizers in embedded sentences: Marian thinks [that George should shave off his beard]. George wonders [if Marian will still like him without his beard]. Marian has left George [because he refused to shave off his beard].
The Complementizer Phrase (CP) CPC’ C S C S that that NP VP Georgeshould shave off his beard
Now there is a position available to host fronted Wh- phrases: the specifier position in the CP CP CP Wh-phrase C’ C S NP VP
Evidence that Wh-phrases are in the spec-of-CP position In English, embedded sentences cannot contain both a Wh-phrase and a visible complementizer: *I wonder [if who ate all the cakes]. *I wonder [who if ate all the cakes]. I wonder [who ate all the cakes]. But this is not universal: Piet vroeg [wie of e die film gezien had]. Piet asked who if that film seen had ‘Piet asked who had seen that film.’
Wh-in-situ There are languages in which Wh-phrases do not move: Ni xihuan shei? you like who ‘Who do you like?’ Wo xiang-zhidao [Lisi mai-le sheme]. I wonder Lisi bought what ‘I wonder what Lisi bought.’
Superiority In English sentences with more than one Wh-phrase only one moves... Who e has given what to whom? *Who what e has given e to whom? *Who what to whom e has given e e?... namely the one that is closest to spec-CP to begin with: *What has who given e to whom? *To whom has who given what e?
Multiple Wh-movement Koj koga e vižda e ? who whom sees *Koj e vižda koga ? who sees whom who sees whom Kdo koho e viděl e ? who whom saw *Kdo e viděl koho ? who saw whom who saw whom
‘Long distance’ Wh-movement ‘Local’ Wh-movement within a sentence: Whom did Marian tell e [that Fiona had read Ulysses]? Marian told Gerry [what Fiona had read e]. ‘Long distance’ Wh-movement out of an embedded sentence: What did Marian think [that Fiona had read e]?
Restrictions on Wh-movement Wh-movement can be blocked. There are constituents that Wh-phrases cannot move out of, for example indirect questions: What did Marian think [that Fiona had read e]? *What did Marian wonder [whether Fiona had read e]?
Another case of impossible Wh-movement: moving out of a coordinated sentence. [Frank bought a road map yesterday] and [Jane hired a car today] *What [did Frank buy e yesterday] and [did Jane hire a car today]? *What [did Frank buy a road map yesterday] and [did Jane hire e today]? But across-the-board movement is possible: What [will Frank buy e tomorrow] and [will Jane throw away e a day later?
Focus movement Beans I like e (but I don’t like sprouts). Ulysses she has never read e (but she has read other books by Joyce). Focus movement is subject to the same restrictions as Wh-movement: That book I think [Fiona will never read e] *That book I wonder [whether Fiona will read e]
Heavy NP Shift Mary gave the book about painting to HENRY yesterday (not to JANE). *Mary gave to HENRY yesterday the book about painting (not to JANE). JANE). Mary gave the book about PAINTING to Henry yesterday (not the book about MUSIC). Mary gave to Henry yesterday the book about PAINTING (not the book about MUSIC).