Presentation on theme: "Source: Phippen, M. L. & Wells, M. P. (1995)"— Presentation transcript:
1Creating and Maintaining a Sterile Environment Part II Preparing a Sterile Field Source: Phippen, M.L. & Wells, M.P. (1995). Perioperative nursing handbook. (p ).
2Skin Preparation Supplies and Equipment Shave prep kit Nonsterile glovesDisposable or terminally sterilized reusable razorSkin solventsAntimicrobial detergentDepilatory creamTerminally sterilized electrical clippers and/or scissors\small separate movable tableSterile prep traySterile absorbent towelsSterile nail cleanerSterile brush
3Skin Preparation Hair removal Check the pt care area for adequ lighting and pt privacy. Explain the procedure to the pt, Inquire about allergies, scars, or moles that may interfere with hair removal.Wet shavePrepare towels, detergent, a sharp disposable or terminally sterilized razor, and a container with warm water.Expose the incisional area, and assess the pt’s skin condition.Don Nonsterile gloves and place in impervious towel beneath the area to be shaved.Lather the skin in the incisional area and let it set for a few minutes.Hold the skin taut and shave by moving the razor in the direction of hair growth, avoiding cutting or making nicks in the skin.Shave only the hair in the incisional area that interferes wit the surgical procedure.After shaving, clean, rinse, and dry the skin and make the pt comfortable.
4Skin Preparation Removing hair with depilatory cream A skin-sensitivity test should be performed before application. Apply the cream according to manufacturer’s instructions.After the specified time, remove the cream and the hair.Clean, rinse, and dry the skin.Removing Hair with Electrical clippers or scissorsClip hair in the prescribe are to prevent contamination of the incisional are with hair.Trim long hair surrounding the incisional are so that it does not interfere with the surgical procedure.Document the pt’s skin condition before and immediately after the hair removal, noting any redness, razor nicks, or skin abrasions.
5Skin PreparationPt Skin ScrubPrepare sterile supplies for skin preparation on a separate, small movable table.Select broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents capable of reducing and inhibiting both transient and resident microorganisms.If unfamiliar with antimicrobial agent, read the manufacturer’s instructions. Some can be neurotoxic, some may be toxic or harmful at various body sites. Eye injury asso. With chlorhexidine gluconate has been reported, and chlorhexidine gluconate can cause ototoxicity if instilled directly into the middle ear.If pt awake, explain procedure, provide privacy and comfort. Allay fears, answer questions.If pt anesthetized, check with anesthetist before starting the prep.After pt positioned, move the small table with the sterile skin prep supplies close to the pt. Expose the area to be prepared, assess skin condition and the effectiveness of hair removal.Don sterile gloves and arrange supplies for the procedure. Place absorbent towels on ea side of the to absorb excess solution and to prevent pooling under the pt, electrodes, and electrosurgical dispersive pad.To prevent pooling under tourniquets, seal off with an impervious U drape or towel. Place impervious pads under the extre. To prevent solutions form saturating pt linen.Benin cleaning at the incision site in a circular motion, moving out toward the periphery. When the edges of the prep site have been reached, discard the used sponge and, with a new sterile sponge, repeat. Never bring soiled sponge back toward incisional site. Prepare at least 6-8 inches beyond the incisional site in all directions unless otherwize stated for a specific procedure.Time the cleansing of the operative site to last long enough to thoroughly cleanse the skin.
6Skin PreparationUse cotton-tipped applicators to thoroughly clean the umbilicus and har-to-reach areas.Clean the prep site from clean to dirty by scrubbing high-bioburden areas last and discarding the sponge. Areas of high bioburden are: umbilicus, axillary area, vagina, anus, open skin lesions, soiled traumatic wounds, stomas).If the incisional site includes a stoma as an integral pat of the procedure, cove the stoma with sterile gauze and cleanse the are surrounding the stoma. Cleanse the stoma last.If the stoma is in the operatative area, yet not included in the incision, isolate the stoma with a clear plastic adherent tape and then begin the prep.Flush most open traumatic wound, burns, or denuded areas with copious amts of sterile solutions to flush contaminants out of the wound.Prep after removal of a cast or large dressing may necessitate soaking with sterile solutions to remove adherent dressings. Exercise caution in this situ because the skin may be sensitive/denude.
7Skin PreparationPrepping for procedures involving grafts necessitates separate setups; if the are is small, however, one preparation setup may be used. Clean the donor site first.When preparing an area with a possible malignance (i.e. a breast mass), omit scrubbing to avoid possible spread of carcinoma and only apply an antimicrobial paint or gel to the operative area.After scrubbing, wipe the lathe off with a dry sponge or blot dry with an absorbent towel.When removing the towel, grasp the edges farthest away and lift the towel up away from the skin; the towel should be brought toward the person performing the preparation. Pay careful attention not to contaminate the prepared area with the edges of the towel.Use a sponge stick and an outward circular motion to apply the antimicrobial solution. Start at the incisional area and move to the periphery. Use a second and third sponge stick to completely cover the operative area.If flammable solutions are used (alcohol, acetone, fat solvents) ensure that adequ time elapses to allow the solution to dry and the fumes to evaporate before activating electrosurgical or laser equipment.Remove the impervious preparation pad form under the extremities or remove the absorbent towels from ea side of the pt; avoid bringing towels over the prepared area.
8Skin PreparationRemove gloves and discard all preparation materials in a proper receptacle.Document on the OR record the pt’s skin condition and the effectiveness of hair removal before beginning the prep; state the antimicrobial agent used, the are prepared, and the person who performed the prep.On completion of the surgical procedure, assess the pt’s skin in and around the operative site and document on the OR record any redness, abrasions, or burns. Communicate the findings to the surgeon and the postanesthesia care nurse.
9Draping the Pt and Equipment Supplies and EquipmentBarrier drapesFenestrtated sheetsDrape sheets (3/4 sheets, ½ sheets, medium sheet)Impervious table coversIncise drapeU drapeTowel drapeAperture drapeIsolation drapeStockinetEquipment drapes
10Draping the Pt and Equipment Principles of DrapingAseptically prepare the operative site before applying sterile surgical drapes.Impervious fluid-proof drapes provide an effective sterile barrier and must be used when soaking of blood and body fluids is a potential risk.Fluid-resistant drapes provide an effective sterile barrier when splashing and spraying of body fluids is a potential risk.Sterile drapes should be handled as little as possible; avoid shaking, fanning, or haphazard unfolding.Drapes are carried folded to the operative site and are considered nonsterile if allowed to fall below the waist or table level.The are around the incision is draped first and then the periphery.When placing drapes, never reach across the nonsterile are to drape the other side; go around; all draping is done from the appro side.Form a cuff with the sterile drape to protect the sterile gloved hands when draping the periphery or equipment.Hold the drapes high enough to avoid touching the nonsterile areas of the OR bed.After a drape is placed, it is not moved or repositioned. Drapes that are incorrectly placed or become contaminated are removed by the circulating nurse, with care not to contaminate the operative site or other drapes.A towel clip that has been place through a drape has contaminated points and must not be repositioned or removed until completion of the procedure.If the sterility of a drape is questionable, discard it.
11Draping the Pt and Equipment Follow the facility guidelines for draping equipment/pt’s in that facility. Note that you must review these at the facility prior to performing this procedure.
12Performing Sponge, Sharps, and Instrument Counts Follow the facility guidelines for these procedures. Note that you must review these at the facility prior to performing these procedures.
13Providing Instruments, Equipment, and Supplies The perioperative nurse demonstrates competency to provide instruments, equipment, and supplies by safely and efficiently:Selecting instruments, equipment, supplies, and suture for a surgical procedureDelivering instruments, supplies, and suture to the sterile fieldArranging instruments and supplies on the instrument table and the Mayo trayPassing instruments and supplies to the surgeonPreparing and passing sutures to the surgeonApplying and removing a pneumatic tourniquetApplying and removing the electrosurgical unit dispersive electrodeOperating the electrosurgical unit generatorPreparing electrical instruments for usePreparing air-powered instruments for usePreparing the hyperthermia or hypothermia unit for useApplying dressingsAssisting with the application of casts and splints
14Providing Instruments, Equipment, and Supplies Selecting Instruments, Equipment, Supplies, and Suture for a surgical procedureObtain the surgeon’s preference card, pick list, and other forms used to select instruments, equipment, suppliesSelect all items listed on the surgeon’s preference card and on the pertinent forms. Make a list of items not availableCheck all sterile items for signs of moisture, lack of seal integrity, compromise of packaging material, such as pinholes and tears.Note the expiration dates. If a discrepancy is found, do not use the item.Examine the autoclave tape on cloth-wrapped packages and the chemical sterilization indicators on or in paper or plastic packages for a color change to ensure that the item was subjected to a sterilization cycle. If a discrepancy is found, do not use the item.If the setup is not immediately used, return the surgeon's preference card to the appro locationClose the case cart or cove the setup with a cloth sheet or other appro protective material and label with the surgeon's name, the date and time of the procedure, and the procedure name.Establish accountability by initialing the label and place the setup in the appro locationIf items are missing from the setup, make a list of missing items and attach it to the setup. Communicate the list of missing items to the appro person.
15Providing Instruments, Equipment, and Supplies Delivering Instruments, supplies, and suture to the sterile fieldGeneral GuidelinesCheck all sterile items for signs of moisture, lack of seal integrity, compromise of packaging material, outdated Expiration dates and the absence of autoclave tape and chemical sterilization indicators of a a color change before opening. If a discrepancy is found, do not use the item.Do not reach over the sterile field when delivering sterile items.Do not use cloth-wrapped items that are dropped on the floor. The decision to open the inner wrappers or packages of double-wrapped or double-packaged items is determined by institutional policy.Wrapped ItemsRemove the autoclave tape and position the package so that it can be opened by lifting the top flap away form the body.Lift the top flap (first flap) away from the body, the second and third flaps to the left and the right, and the last flap toward the body.Gather the wrapper tails together with one hand when presenting the item to the sterile field.Open the wrappers for sharp, bulky, or heavy items on an appro-sized table or a Mayo stand.
16Providing Instruments, Equipment, and Supplies Items Sealed in Peel-Back PackagesCarefully peel the package apart and present the item to the scrub person.The scrub person grasps the item and carefully lifts it form the package. The item must not touch the package’s inner seal line during removal.If the scrub person cannot accept the sterile item, flip the item onto the sterile field. The item must not touch he inner seal line while being passed to the sterile field.Arranging Instruments and Supplies on the Instrument Table and Mayo TrayGeneral GuidelinesDivide back table into four sections.The scrub person stands next to the left and right lower sections.If instruments are numerous, use a second back table or a Mayo stand and tray.Facilitate the continuity of care during staff changes by uniformly setting up back tables and Mayo trays.Before transferring an instrument set or other items to the back table, check the internal chemical sterilization indicator for a color change.If the color of the indicator has not changed or if the indicator is missing, remove the item and regown and reglove.
17Providing Instruments, Equipment, and Supplies Follow the facility guidelines for setting up the sterile field.