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Reilly Jobkar and Mary Ruggieri

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1 Reilly Jobkar and Mary Ruggieri
Reptiles Reilly Jobkar and Mary Ruggieri

2 Reptiles Domain- Eukaryote Kingdom- Animalia Phylum- Chordata
Subphylum- Vertebrate Class- Reptilia

3 Evolutionary History Evolved 300 mya From amphibians
Sharp teeth, claws and strong jaws Hunted insects for food

4 Evolutionary History 300 different genuses of dinosaurs
Adapted to environmental conditions 65 mya mass extinction #1 hypothesis- asteroid Only 4 orders survived

5 Reptilian Traits Dry, scaly, waterproof skin Amniotic Egg Lungs
Ectotherms Molt/shed their skin

6 Water-tight Skin Decreases water loss
Protects against wear, tear & infections Made of keratin Thick protein Lipids repel H20

7 4 Orders of Modern Reptiles
Chelonian Crocodilia Squamata Rynchocephalia

8 Order: Chelonian Traits 250 species of turtles & tortoises Beak
No Teeth Oviparity Lay eggs in sand or soil

9 Chelonian 3. Two shells and scutes Carapace- Top dome-like
Vertebrae fused to shell Ribs form off of vertebrae Plastron- lower ventral shell Protects internal organs

10 Chelonian 4. Body shape & adaptations Aquatic turtles
Flat disk-like shell Webbed feet for swimming Terrestrial tortoises Dome shaped shell Feet are scaled and clawed

11 Order: Crocodilia 21 species crocodiles, alligators, caimans & gavials
Large heavy armored Carnivorous Oviparity Lay eggs in nest Mother cares for young

12 Order: Squamata 5500 species of lizards and snakes Lizards Carnivorous
Lower jaw loosely attached to skull Agile, quick & camouflaged Can detach and regrow tail

13 Squamata Snakes No legs Long backbone 100-400 vertebrae
Ribs off of each vertebrae vertebrae Can pop lower jaw to eat 1000’s of muscles for movement

14 Squamata Constriction Injection of venom Coil around prey
Suffocates to death Injection of venom Hemotoxins- affects blood Neurotoxins- affects nerves

15 Squamata Fangs Elapids Vipers Back of throat In front of mouth
Retractable on roof of mouth Ex. Copperheads and Rattlesnakes

16 Order: Rhynchocephalia
2 living species of Tuataras New Zealand Third eye Sun detector Crest of head Hunt insects at night

17 Respiratory System Purpose Made up of
Exchange Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide between the animal and the environment Made up of Lungs Alveoli (air sacs that make up lungs) Increase surface area

18 Respiratory System (Continued)
Mechanics Diaphragm moves and rib cage expands with inhalation Contracts with exhalation

19 Snake Respiratory Variation
Larger right lung (1/2 length of body) and small nonfunctioning left lung

20 Excretory System Purpose
Remove nitrogenous wastes Reptile urine is very concentrated with ammonia Includes- Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder

21 Digestive System Purpose One way system
Break down food into usable molecules One way system Mouth to Anus Includes- Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small and Large Intestines, and Anus Also includes Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

22 Circulatory System Two loop system Systemic loop Pulmonary loop
Heart to body to heart Pulmonary loop Heart to lungs to heart

23 Circulatory System (Continued)
3 chambered heart (2 Atria and 1 Ventricle) Lizards Snakes Turtles 4 chambered heart (2 Atria and 2 Ventricles) Crocodiles Alligators Can be partial or full

24 Nervous System Sight Hearing Larger eyes=better sight
Tympanic membrane Except snakes Snakes use lower jaw to detect vibrations

25 Nervous System (Continued)
Smell Jacobson’s organ Located on roof of mouth Brings in scents by using tongue All reptiles have nares except crocodiles and alligators Pits Small openings under eyes detect heat given off by prey

26 Nervous System (Continued)
Brain Same size as amphibians’ Larger cerebrum and optic nerve

27 Thermoregulation (Ectotherms)
Cold blooded- Use sun to regulate body temperature Reptiles and Amphibians Require less energy (1/10 of food) Cannot live in cold environments (without hibernation) Not very active

28 Thermoregulation (Endotherms)
Warm blooded- Regulate body temperature through metabolism Mammals and Birds Lots of energy Need large quantities of food Can live anywhere Very active

29 Reproduction (Oviparity)
Most reptiles, all birds, and 3 species of Mammals Shell formed in reproductive tract Laid outside of body

30 Reproduction (Ovoviviparity)
Some reptiles Shell is retained in female Young hatch while inside cloaca

31 Reproduction (Viviparity)
Most mammals Female releases egg- internal fertilization Mother houses, protects, and feeds young Young is fed via placenta

32 Amniotic Egg Adaptations
Prevents embryo from drying out Prevents accumulation of wastes Supplies nutrients for growth and protection Supplies oxygen and water for cellular activities

33 Amniotic Egg Structure and Function
Shell Protection and prevents water loss Tough and leathery Air Sac Breathing room while hatching Albumen Stores protein and water White

34 Amniotic Egg Structure and Function (Continued)
Allantois Stores nitrogenous waste Exchanges Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Yolk Sac Contains nutrients and fats Amnion Thin membrane that encloses embryo Contains floating liquid

35 Amniotic Egg Structure and Function (Continued)
Chorion Protects embryo and vital parts

36 Interactive Links

37 Videos

38 Works Cited All information was gathered from notes

39 Thanks for Watching! :D

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