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Reptiles Reilly Jobkar and Mary Ruggieri. Reptiles  Domain- Eukaryote  Kingdom- Animalia  Phylum- Chordata  Subphylum- Vertebrate  Class- Reptilia.

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Presentation on theme: "Reptiles Reilly Jobkar and Mary Ruggieri. Reptiles  Domain- Eukaryote  Kingdom- Animalia  Phylum- Chordata  Subphylum- Vertebrate  Class- Reptilia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reptiles Reilly Jobkar and Mary Ruggieri

2 Reptiles  Domain- Eukaryote  Kingdom- Animalia  Phylum- Chordata  Subphylum- Vertebrate  Class- Reptilia

3 Evolutionary History  Evolved 300 mya  From amphibians  Sharp teeth, claws and strong jaws  Hunted insects for food

4 Evolutionary History  300 different genuses of dinosaurs  Adapted to environmental conditions  65 mya mass extinction  #1 hypothesis- asteroid  Only 4 orders survived

5 Reptilian Traits 1. Dry, scaly, waterproof skin 2. Amniotic Egg 3. Lungs 4. Ectotherms 5. Molt/shed their skin

6 Water-tight Skin  Decreases water loss  Protects against wear, tear & infections  Made of keratin  Thick protein  Lipids repel H20

7 4 Orders of Modern Reptiles 1. Chelonian 2. Crocodilia 3. Squamata 4. Rynchocephalia

8 Order: Chelonian  250 species of turtles & tortoises Traits 1. Beak  No Teeth 2. Oviparity  Lay eggs in sand or soil

9 Chelonian 3. Two shells and scutes  Carapace- Top dome-like  Vertebrae fused to shell  Ribs form off of vertebrae  Plastron- lower ventral shell  Protects internal organs

10 Chelonian 4. Body shape & adaptations  Aquatic turtles  Flat disk-like shell  Webbed feet for swimming  Terrestrial tortoises  Dome shaped shell  Feet are scaled and clawed

11 Order: Crocodilia  21 species crocodiles, alligators, caimans & gavials 1. Large heavy armored 2. Carnivorous 3. Oviparity  Lay eggs in nest  Mother cares for young

12 Order: Squamata  5500 species of lizards and snakes  Lizards 1. Carnivorous 2. Lower jaw loosely attached to skull 3. Agile, quick & camouflaged 4. Can detach and regrow tail

13 Squamata  Snakes 1. No legs 2. Long backbone  Ribs off of each vertebrae vertebrae 4. Can pop lower jaw to eat ’s of muscles for movement

14 Squamata  Constriction  Coil around prey  Suffocates to death  Injection of venom  Hemotoxins- affects blood  Neurotoxins- affects nerves

15 Squamata  Fangs  Back of throat  Elapids  In front of mouth  Vipers  Retractable on roof of mouth  Ex. Copperheads and Rattlesnakes

16 Order: Rhynchocephalia  2 living species of Tuataras 1. New Zealand 2. Third eye  Sun detector  Crest of head  Hunt insects at night

17 Respiratory System  Purpose  Exchange Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide between the animal and the environment  Made up of  Lungs  Alveoli (air sacs that make up lungs)  Increase surface area

18 Respiratory System (Continued)  Mechanics  Diaphragm moves and rib cage expands with inhalation  Contracts with exhalation

19 Snake Respiratory Variation  Larger right lung (1/2 length of body) and small nonfunctioning left lung

20 Excretory System  Purpose  Remove nitrogenous wastes  Reptile urine is very concentrated with ammonia  Includes- Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder

21 Digestive System  Purpose  Break down food into usable molecules  One way system  Mouth to Anus  Includes- Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small and Large Intestines, and Anus  Also includes Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

22 Circulatory System  Two loop system  Systemic loop  Heart to body to heart  Pulmonary loop  Heart to lungs to heart

23 Circulatory System (Continued)  3 chambered heart (2 Atria and 1 Ventricle)  Lizards  Snakes  Turtles  4 chambered heart (2 Atria and 2 Ventricles)  Crocodiles  Alligators  Can be partial or full

24 Nervous System  Sight  Larger eyes=better sight  Hearing  Tympanic membrane  Except snakes  Snakes use lower jaw to detect vibrations

25 Nervous System (Continued)  Smell  Jacobson’s organ  Located on roof of mouth  Brings in scents by using tongue  All reptiles have nares except crocodiles and alligators  Pits  Small openings under eyes detect heat given off by prey

26 Nervous System (Continued)  Brain  Same size as amphibians’  Larger cerebrum and optic nerve

27 Thermoregulation (Ectotherms)  Cold blooded- Use sun to regulate body temperature  Reptiles and Amphibians  Require less energy (1/10 of food)  Cannot live in cold environments (without hibernation)  Not very active

28 Thermoregulation (Endotherms)  Warm blooded- Regulate body temperature through metabolism  Mammals and Birds  Lots of energy  Need large quantities of food  Can live anywhere  Very active

29 Reproduction (Oviparity)  Most reptiles, all birds, and 3 species of Mammals  Shell formed in reproductive tract  Laid outside of body

30 Reproduction (Ovoviviparity)  Some reptiles  Shell is retained in female  Young hatch while inside cloaca

31 Reproduction (Viviparity)  Most mammals  Female releases egg- internal fertilization  Mother houses, protects, and feeds young  Young is fed via placenta

32 Amniotic Egg Adaptations  Prevents embryo from drying out  Prevents accumulation of wastes  Supplies nutrients for growth and protection  Supplies oxygen and water for cellular activities

33 Amniotic Egg Structure and Function  Shell  Protection and prevents water loss  Tough and leathery  Air Sac  Breathing room while hatching  Albumen  Stores protein and water  White

34 Amniotic Egg Structure and Function (Continued)  Allantois  Stores nitrogenous waste  Exchanges Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide  Yolk Sac  Contains nutrients and fats  Amnion  Thin membrane that encloses embryo  Contains floating liquid

35 Amniotic Egg Structure and Function (Continued)  Chorion  Protects embryo and vital parts

36 Interactive Links      ive1.htm ive1.htm 

37 Videos     

38 Works Cited  All information was gathered from notes

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