Presentation on theme: "Psychology and scientific procedures"— Presentation transcript:
1Psychology and scientific procedures MEANING OF PSYCHOLOGYDefinitionsPsychology and scientific procedures
2Objectives At the end of the session, you will be able to: Define the concept psychologyDefine behaviorExplain characteristics of psychology as a scientific study
3Etymological definition It is derived from Greek words; psyche and logos.Psyche-mind, like psych/iatry, psych/osis, psycho/linguistic, psycho/metric,Logos-study, we get socio/logy, zoo/logy, bio/logy, anthropo/logy or axio/logyCombination of two originally separate words, we get the study of mind or mental processes.During Greek times psychology was part of philosophy. So, psychology was studied like philosophy.
4Meaning of psychologyMethods used were speculation, reflection, observation (not systematic) and examination of people’s actions.The study of mind (processes and functions) did not use rigorous methods.The emergence of scientific methods in studying human mind caused psychology to gradually detach from philosophy and became a distinct discipline.
5Psychology as a distinct discipline A German Psychologist, Wilhelm Wundt ( ) started to study mental processes scientifically in 19th century.The basic method he used was introspection (looking within).The influence of Wundt’s studies caused psychology to be defined as the study of mental life (Myers 1990;2 & Shaughnessy, J et al 2000).His studies focused on covert experiences and consciousness, sensations, feelings and thoughts.
6Introspection: ‘The examination of your own thoughts or feelings’ (Oxford English Dictionary 6th edit.)The focus of investigation is the examination of people’s thoughts, feelings and reasons of their behaviors.In the early 20th century, Behavioral psychology emerged.This field which is associated with John Watson, influenced change of definition of psychology.It was then defined as the science of behavior sticking on overt rather than covert behavior.
7In 1960s, psychology shifted again on conscious and unconscious state of mind during the emergence of Information Processing Approach.It studies how the mind takes in, processes and retains information.Hence the definition took another swing. It included overt (actions) and covert behavior (feelings and thoughts) .
8Overt behavior: visible behavior that can be directly observed and measured. Covert behavior: internal processes; thinking, memorizing, relating, planning and imagining; Feelings-sadness, hate, love, joy, disappointment or disgust.Myers (1990:2) points out that this has led psychology to be defined as ‘the science of behavior and mental processes’.(Passer, M & Smith, R;2001:4) define it as ‘The scientific study of behavior and the factors that influence it’
9Behavior elements of behavior Thought (unobservable) Actions (observable)Thought (unobservable)Feelings (unobservable)
10Psychology as a scientific study Non-scientific ways of finding truth: tenacity based on beliefs; authority based on trust and intuition based on common sense.Scientific truth is based on scientific procedures.Basic scientific methods: experiment, observation, case studies, survey, correlation.As a scientific study, psychology requires precision and accuracy, relies on objective truth rather than opinion.According to Omari (1976:17), Science is driven by three forces: curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness.
11Psychology as sciencesystematiccontrolempiricalobjectivereplicablemeasurementverifiabileLogictheory
12Characteristics of scientific procedures It is:Systematic:follows a certain order, logical sequence and interrelation of activities, issues, ideas and concepts at all the stages of the investigation.
13Systematicness of scientific procedure ProblemHypothesisStudy designData collectionData analysis and interpretationConclusions
14Characteristics of scientific procedures Controlled:Limitation and restriction of un-required data.The investigator includes only needed data in the study.Control begins at the level of design of the investigation.It includes careful choice of subjects/respondents, methods, measurement procedures, rationale, how to minimize errors (measurement, sampling) in order to get specific data needed.
15Empirical:It looks for empirical evidence, the data that can be:verified and proved by human senses;known through observation and experience.Objective:Obtaining data that are not based on:opinion or one’s subjective ideas or biasness.from one’s sensations, feelings, emotions or common sense
16The results are only justified by its methods and operationalization. Verifiable and replicable:Verifiable: Methods and procedures provides room for check and verification at every step to:know how the results have been obtained.Validate and prove the resultsSo, they must be:precise and accurateclearly and objectively presented
17Replicable: Ability of the study to correct itself when repeated again. Any scientific study must be repeated in several times in order to approve the results of the initial investigation.Measurement:To measure is to describe data, events or behavior using numbers.Description of using numbers is done at every stage; statement of the problem, design, sampling, collection and analysis of data.
18Logical:Logic: The ability to reason correctly.Deductive and Inductive logical explanations and arguments are necessary in conducting any scientific study.Theoretical:Theory: ‘a logically organized set of propositions (claims, statements, assertions) that serves to define events (concepts), describe relationships among these events, and explain the occurrence of these events’ (Shaughnessy, J et al, 2000:30).
19Theory:guides framework of the problem of the study;displays data systematically and orderly;guides interpretation of data;generates predictions in a situation where no data has been obtained.
20Importance of studying human behavior scientifically Complexity and instability of human behavior which becomes uneasy to determine it.Interactive factors that shape and change behavior.There are many specific aspects of behavior to be studied: abilities, attitudes, thought, experiences.
21EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY ObjectivesAt the end of this session, you will be able to:Define the concept of ‘Educational psychology’.Explain the meaning of Educational psychology.Explain the interrelationship between Learner, Learning and Teaching.Identify main areas of education where psychology is applied.
22EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Educational psychology: two disciplines in one.Psychology: the scientific study of human and animal behavior.Major focus of psychology: studying and formulating principles about behavior (human and animal).Education: the process of facilitating acquisition of knowledge, skills and values.Major concern of education is practice
23EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY THEORY AND PRINCIPLES FORMULATIONEDUCATION: PRACTICEEDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
24What is educational psychology? Rosser, R & Nicholson (1987:3) believe that educational psychology is devoted to help teachers apply principles and knowledge of psychology to educational concerns.Reilly and Lewis (1983:6) define it as the application of psychology to teaching and solving educational problems.Slavin, R (1988:3): the study of learners, learning and teaching.24
25The definitions show that Educational psychology: is an applied branch of psychology;focuses on understanding teaching, learning and learners;enables the teacher to choose, decide and do what is appropriate for teaching and learners;combines theory and practice; psychology deals with theory and education with practice.
26Educational psychology’s main focus is on: LearnerLearningTeaching
27LearnerPhysicalMentalEmotionalSocialMoralLearning processObservingExperimentingImitatingAsking and answering questionsInquiringInferringTeachingGuiding, leading and supportingInstructingEncouraging and appraisingAssistingTreating well
28Interrelation of Learner, Learning and Teaching. The learner must be understood because he is the target in the teaching and learning process.The teacher must understand how children’s characteristics affect their learning.Understanding the learner will enable the teacher to provide meaningful learning experience in terms of:Designing effective learning strategiesInvolving learners in the learning processMotivating learnersDesigning learning materialsFormulating learning objectives.
29TeachingIt is the process of facilitating learning by putting the learner in the most conducive environment for learning.It is believed that understanding the learner and the learning process, teaching can be facilitated through:Good organization of the lessonEffective motivation of studentsCreation of effective learning environmentAppropriate choice of materials and strategiesAppropriate assessment of students
30The knowledge of learner and learning process will moreover enable the teacher to understand: his or her professional responsibilitiesHow to behaveHow to interact with studentsHow to organize himself or herselfHow to organize learners’ learning experiences
31Application of psychology in education Psychology is applied in Education in the following main areas:Curriculum plan and designEducational and School leadershipEducational Measurement and AssessmentClassroom managementEducational researchDevising and using Teaching and Learning methods and materialsEducational Guidance and CounselingPlanning lessons
32ReferencesDurojaiye, M. O. (1976): An Introduction to Educational Psychology. London: Evans Brothers.Elliott, S et al (2000): Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning. Boston: McGraw Hill.Myers, D. (1990): Exploring Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers,Passer, M & Smith, R (2001): Psychology: Frontiers and Applications. McGraw Hill Boston.
33Reilly, R and Lewis, E (1983): Educational Psychology: Application For Classroom Learning and Instruction. New York: McMillan Publishing.Rosser, R & Nicholson, G (1987): Educational Psychology: Principles and Practice. Boston: Little Brown and Comp.Slavin, R (1988): Educational Psychology: Theory into Practice. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
34Sample of Exam Questions 1. Explain how you can apply psychology in choosing and using:Learning materialsManaging classroom during teaching.Devising teaching strategiesPlanning instruction2. What are the three aspects of behaviour?