Presentation on theme: "MEANING OF PSYCHOLOGY Definitions Psychology and scientific procedures PSYCHOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:
MEANING OF PSYCHOLOGY Definitions Psychology and scientific procedures PSYCHOLOGY
O BJECTIVES At the end of the session, you will be able to: Define the concept psychology Define behavior Explain characteristics of psychology as a scientific study
Etymological definition It is derived from Greek words; psyche and logos. Psyche-mind, like psych/iatry, psych/osis, psycho/linguistic, psycho/metric, Logos-study, we get socio/logy, zoo/logy, bio/logy, anthropo/logy or axio/logy Combination of two originally separate words, we get the study of mind or mental processes. During Greek times psychology was part of philosophy. So, psychology was studied like philosophy.
Meaning of psychology Methods used were speculation, reflection, observation (not systematic) and examination of people’s actions. The study of mind (processes and functions) did not use rigorous methods. The emergence of scientific methods in studying human mind caused psychology to gradually detach from philosophy and became a distinct discipline.
Psychology as a distinct discipline A German Psychologist, Wilhelm Wundt ( ) started to study mental processes scientifically in 19th century. The basic method he used was introspection (looking within). The influence of Wundt’s studies caused psychology to be defined as the study of mental life (Myers 1990;2 & Shaughnessy, J et al 2000). His studies focused on covert experiences and consciousness, sensations, feelings and thoughts.
Introspection: ‘The examination of your own thoughts or feelings’ (Oxford English Dictionary 6th edit.) The focus of investigation is the examination of people’s thoughts, feelings and reasons of their behaviors. In the early 20th century, Behavioral psychology emerged. This field which is associated with John Watson, influenced change of definition of psychology. It was then defined as the science of behavior sticking on overt rather than covert behavior.
In 1960s, psychology shifted again on conscious and unconscious state of mind during the emergence of Information Processing Approach. It studies how the mind takes in, processes and retains information. Hence the definition took another swing. It included overt (actions) and covert behavior (feelings and thoughts).
Overt behavior: visible behavior that can be directly observed and measured. Covert behavior: internal processes; thinking, memorizing, relating, planning and imagining; Feelings-sadness, hate, love, joy, disappointment or disgust. Myers (1990:2) points out that this has led psychology to be defined as ‘the science of behavior and mental processes’. (Passer, M & Smith, R;2001:4) define it as ‘The scientific study of behavior and the factors that influence it’
ELEMENTS OF BEHAVIOR Behavior Actions (observable) Thought (unobservable) Feelings (unobservable)
Psychology as a scientific study Non-scientific ways of finding truth: tenacity based on beliefs; authority based on trust and intuition based on common sense. Scientific truth is based on scientific procedures. Basic scientific methods: experiment, observation, case studies, survey, correlation. As a scientific study, psychology requires precision and accuracy, relies on objective truth rather than opinion. According to Omari (1976:17), Science is driven by three forces: curiosity, skepticism, and open- mindedness.
Psychology as science systematiccontrolempiricalobjectivereplicablemeasurementverifiabileLogictheory
Characteristics of scientific procedures It is: Systematic: follows a certain order, logical sequence and interrelation of activities, issues, ideas and concepts at all the stages of the investigation.
S YSTEMATICNESS OF SCIENTIFIC PROCEDURE ProblemHypothesis Study design Data collection Data analysis and interpretation Conclusions
Characteristics of scientific procedures Controlled: Limitation and restriction of un-required data. The investigator includes only needed data in the study. Control begins at the level of design of the investigation. It includes careful choice of subjects/respondents, methods, measurement procedures, rationale, how to minimize errors (measurement, sampling) in order to get specific data needed.
Empirical: It looks for empirical evidence, the data that can be: verified and proved by human senses; known through observation and experience. Objective: Obtaining data that are not based on: opinion or one’s subjective ideas or biasness. from one’s sensations, feelings, emotions or common sense
The results are only justified by its methods and operationalization. Verifiable and replicable: Verifiable: Methods and procedures provides room for check and verification at every step to: know how the results have been obtained. Validate and prove the results So, they must be: precise and accurate clearly and objectively presented
Replicable: Ability of the study to correct itself when repeated again. Any scientific study must be repeated in several times in order to approve the results of the initial investigation. Measurement: To measure is to describe data, events or behavior using numbers. Description of using numbers is done at every stage; statement of the problem, design, sampling, collection and analysis of data.
Logical: Logic: The ability to reason correctly. Deductive and Inductive logical explanations and arguments are necessary in conducting any scientific study. Theoretical: Theory: ‘a logically organized set of propositions (claims, statements, assertions) that serves to define events (concepts), describe relationships among these events, and explain the occurrence of these events’ (Shaughnessy, J et al, 2000:30).
Theory: guides framework of the problem of the study; displays data systematically and orderly; guides interpretation of data; generates predictions in a situation where no data has been obtained.
Importance of studying human behavior scientifically Complexity and instability of human behavior which becomes uneasy to determine it. Interactive factors that shape and change behavior. There are many specific aspects of behavior to be studied: abilities, attitudes, thought, experiences.
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Objectives At the end of this session, you will be able to: a) Define the concept of ‘Educational psychology’. b) Explain the meaning of Educational psychology. c) Explain the interrelationship between Learner, Learning and Teaching. d) Identify main areas of education where psychology is applied.
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Educational psychology: two disciplines in one. Psychology: the scientific study of human and animal behavior. Major focus of psychology: studying and formulating principles about behavior (human and animal). Education: the process of facilitating acquisition of knowledge, skills and values. Major concern of education is practice
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY THEORY AND PRINCIPLES FORMULATION EDUCATION: PRACTICE EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
What is educational psychology? Rosser, R & Nicholson (1987:3) believe that educational psychology is devoted to help teachers apply principles and knowledge of psychology to educational concerns. Reilly and Lewis (1983:6) define it as the application of psychology to teaching and solving educational problems. Slavin, R (1988:3): the study of learners, learning and teaching.
The definitions show that Educational psychology: is an applied branch of psychology; focuses on understanding teaching, learning and learners; enables the teacher to choose, decide and do what is appropriate for teaching and learners; combines theory and practice; psychology deals with theory and education with practice.
Educational psychology’s main focus is on: Learner Learning Teaching
Physical Mental Emotional Social Moral Learner Observing Experimenting Imitating Asking and answering questions Inquiring Inferring Learning process Guiding, leading and supporting Instructing Encouraging and appraising Assisting Treating well Observing Teaching
Interrelation of Learner, Learning and Teaching. The learner must be understood because he is the target in the teaching and learning process. The teacher must understand how children’s characteristics affect their learning. Understanding the learner will enable the teacher to provide meaningful learning experience in terms of: Designing effective learning strategies Involving learners in the learning process Motivating learners Designing learning materials Formulating learning objectives.
Teaching It is the process of facilitating learning by putting the learner in the most conducive environment for learning. It is believed that understanding the learner and the learning process, teaching can be facilitated through: Good organization of the lesson Effective motivation of students Creation of effective learning environment Appropriate choice of materials and strategies Appropriate assessment of students
The knowledge of learner and learning process will moreover enable the teacher to understand: his or her professional responsibilities How to behave How to interact with students How to organize himself or herself How to organize learners’ learning experiences
Application of psychology in education Psychology is applied in Education in the following main areas: Curriculum plan and design Educational and School leadership Educational Measurement and Assessment Classroom management Educational research Devising and using Teaching and Learning methods and materials Educational Guidance and Counseling Planning lessons
References Durojaiye, M. O. (1976): An Introduction to Educational Psychology. London: Evans Brothers. Elliott, S et al (2000): Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning. Boston: McGraw Hill. Myers, D. (1990): Exploring Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers, Passer, M & Smith, R (2001): Psychology: Frontiers and Applications. McGraw Hill Boston.
Reilly, R and Lewis, E (1983): Educational Psychology: Application For Classroom Learning and Instruction. New York: McMillan Publishing. Rosser, R & Nicholson, G (1987): Educational Psychology: Principles and Practice. Boston: Little Brown and Comp. Slavin, R (1988): Educational Psychology: Theory into Practice. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Sample of Exam Questions 1. Explain how you can apply psychology in choosing and using: a) Learning materials b) Managing classroom during teaching. c) Devising teaching strategies d) Planning instruction 2. What are the three aspects of behaviour?