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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Inequality Based on Age This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Inequality Based on Age This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Inequality Based on Age This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Chapter 5 outline Ageism 6 Stages of life course Life course Stage-based approach Dying trajectory Task-based approach Death and Dying Workplace and retirement Health Victimization Social isolation and Housing Problems associated with aging Functionalist Interactionist Conflict Perspectives on Aging

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Ageism and the Life Course Ageism: prejudice and discrimination against people on the basis of age. (marginalizes older people) Social Gerontology: study of the social aspects of aging. The Life Course ChildhoodAdolescence Young Adulthood Middle Age Later Maturity Old Age

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 The Life Course Childhood: Infants: Birth to age 2 Children: Age 3 to 12 Most powerless individuals in society Adolescence New concept in 20 th century Hard to define particular age range Caught in between children and adulthood

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 The Life Course, cont. Young Adulthood: Early to mid 20’s until about age 39 Acquisition of new roles New freedom Middle Age: Age 40 to about 60/65 Relatively new stage with increasing life expectancies Experience senescence (physical changes) and secondary aging (environmental factors)

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 The Life Course, cont. Later Maturity begins in 60’s Peer groups shrink May care for others their age or older Old Age: begins in late 60’s or 70’s Generally out of paid employment Increase in likelihood of medical conditions

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Life expectancy Life Expectancy: Average length of time a group of individuals will live. In U.S. expected to be 78 by 2010 Age categories: Gerontologists divide up those over 65 due to significant differences between older age groups Young old: years old Old Old: Oldest Old: 85+ Fastest growing age group in U.S.

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Death and Dying Three Frameworks Stage-based approach Dying trajectory Task-based approach

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Stage-based approach Elisabeth Kubler-Ross says there are 5 stages in the dying process: Denial Anger Bargaining and asking for divine intervention Depression Acceptance

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Dying Trajectory Not everyone moves toward death at the same speed and in the same way Trajectories can be: Sudden (heart attack) Slow (lung cancer) 3 Phases: Acute phase (maximum anxiety) Chronic phase (anxiety declines) Terminal phase (withdrawal from others)

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Task-Based Approach Daily activities can still be enjoyed during dying process Fulfilling tasks makes it easier on all involved. 3 main types of tasks: Physical tasks: satisfy bodily needs Psychological tasks: maximize psychological security Spiritual tasks: identify, develop, or reaffirm spiritual energy

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Problems associated with aging Workplace discrimination: Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 Protects workers age 45 and up Discrimination still remains due to myths about older workers. Retirement: Separation of an individual from their occupation Compulsory retirement laws less common today Differs for racial groups (whites have advantage)

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Problems, cont. Health, Illness, and Health Care: Older people healthier today Malnutrition big problem for elderly Most eligible for Medicare 1/3 of money spent on health care in U.S. is for elderly Victimization: Less likely to be victims of violent crime Targets of scams Experience elder abuse (physical, emotional, sexual, financial or result of neglect.)

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Problems, cont. Family Problems and Social Isolation: Become socially isolated from their families Many elderly live alone Housing patterns: Only 5% of elderly live in institutional setting Whites, those 85+, and females are more likely Women more likely to live alone

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Perspectives on Aging Functionalist: Older people should detach themselves from society for healthy adjustment and stability of society. Disengagement theory: older people want to be released from societal expectations of productivity. Should gradually transfer their statuses and roles to next generation

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Perspectives (cont.) Interactionist: Focus on relationship between life satisfaction and level of activity Activity Theory: Older people happier and better adjusted if they are active Shift gears later in life to find meaningful substitutes for previous activities.

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Perspectives (cont.) Conflict: Some older people have inadequate resources in society People who are disadvantaged in younger years become more so in older years

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Solutions to age inequality Technology might bring more freedom for older people. Dependency ratio: number of workers necessary to support people under age 15 and over age 63. Going down as baby boomers retire. Expected to be 3:1 Functionalists suggest changes in families and other social institutions Interactionists suggestion maintaining strong relationships


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