Presentation on theme: "Personality Essential questions: What is a personality?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Personality Essential questions: What is a personality? Is our personality encoded or learned?Does it ever change?What other factors influence our personalities?What describes our own personality?
2 What is Personality?How would you define personality?“Personality psychologists” study how people:THINK FEEL BEHAVEYour personality is a relatively stable combination or these characteristics
3 Top Enduring Issues Nature vs. Nurture Person vs. Situation Stability vs. Change4. Unconscious vs. Conscious
4 Freud and the psychoanalysts: Evolutionary Psychologists: So what makes you, you??Neuropsychologists:You are a compilation of synaptic connections that are strengthened by experience!Social PsychologistYou are a member of a group or culture whose behaviors depend largely on those around you! (final unit)Freud and the psychoanalysts:You are the screwed up product of your childhood conflicts (siblings, parents, friends).*Humanistic Psychologist:You are innately good and need love and support to achieve your “ideal self”!Add cognitive and behavioralYOU!!Evolutionary Psychologists:You are governed by your survival instincts.Behavioral: Your behaviors are learned through reward and punishment.Cognitive: You are how you think.
5 Psychodynamic Psychologists Emphasis unconscious conflict (we are not aware of the effects it has on our personality)Focus is on the negativeDifficult to overcomeTherapy can only provide insight into problem, not necessarily a solution
6 Psychodynamic Psychologists FreudUnconscious drives of sex and aggression (ID, Superego)Psychosexual Stages (Conflicts with Mother/Father)Alfred AdlerBirth order creates inferiority, unconsciouslyJungWe all have universal similarities due to the collective unconsciousErik EriksonPsychosocial stages of developmentKaren HorneyOur general anxiety over our success and failures create neurotic tendencies
7 Freud’s Personality Structure IDBorn with thisGoverned by “Pleasure Principle”Houses unconscious drives of sex (libido) and aggressionSelfish, irrational, seeks instant gratificationEGODevelops during infancy (6 months)Governed by “Reality Principle”Seeks to gratify Id urges at an appropriate timeInherits inevitable anxiety produced by Id-Superego conflictDonald DuckSUPEREGODevelops during childhood (6 years)Governed by “Judicial” or “Moral Principle”The internalized parentSeeks to do what is right and good (conscience)Causes us to feel guilty for our desires/id impulses
8 Freud’s Psychosocial Stages Oral (0-1.5 yrs)Conflict: WeaningFixation: Oral (cigarettes, need to chew pens, gum, etc.)Anal ( yrs)Conflict: Potty TrainingFixation: Anal Retentive or ExpulsivePhallic (4-6 yrs)Conflict: Overcoming attraction to parentsOedipus and Electra Complex; Penis EnvyFixation: Poor relationships with the opposite sexi.e. “promiscuous behavior” in femalesLatent (7-11)Sexual desires are repressedGenital (12-adult)Normal sexual relationships
9 Freud’s Defense Mechanisms Create a vignette (scenario and skit) for your defense mechanismYou will act it out in front of your classmatesThey will guess what defense mechanism you are demonstrating
10 The Defense Mechanisms Denial (Negation)Refusal to acknowledge a painful realityRepressionUnpleasant thoughts are excluded from consciousness; “motivated forgetting”ProjectionAttributing one’s own feelings, motives, or wishes to othersIdentificationTaking on the characteristics of other to avoid feeling incompetentRegressionReverting to childlike behaviorRationalizationMaking up a logical explanation for an emotionally painful event rather than dealing with the pain
11 The Defense Mechanisms IntellectualizationThinking about stressful problems in an abstract way to detach oneself from themReaction formationExpression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are opposite of true feelingsDisplacementShift repressed motives from an original object to a substitute objectSublimationRedirecting repressed motives and feelings into socially acceptable activitiesUndoingAfter-the-fact defense mechanism involving “making up” for guilt-producing actions
12 Neo-Freudians: Alfred Adler He was the younger, “weaker” son in his family“Inferiority” influenced personalityInferiority complexFixation on feelings of personal inferiority that can lead to emotional and social paralysisBirth OrderOldestMiddleYoungestOnlyDethronementWhen the next child is born, the older one is forced to share parental attentionCompensationOur efforts to win back parental love after dethronement
13 Neo-Freudians: Carl Jung One of Freud’s best students – his “surrogate son”Freud was said to have fainted in his presence several times!Existence of collective unconscious in addition to the personal unconsciousArchetypesMotherHeroVillain
14 Neo Freudians Erik Erikson Disagreed with psychosexual stagesInstead, created his psychosocial stagesTrust vs. MistrustAutonomy vs. Shame and DoubtInitiative vs. GuiltIndustry vs. InferiorityIdentity vs. Role confusionIntimacy vs. isolationGenerativity vs. stagnationIntegrity vs. despair
15 Neofreudians: Karen Horney Our general social anxieties create neurotic tendenciesThese anxieties can manifest in “normal ways”….i.e. nervous and doubtful of your abilities; seek constant approval from othersOr “neurotic” waysDevelop OCD?
16 Uncovering the Unconscious How do we determine what is in the unconscious?Dream analysis (Chapter 3- What do your dreams tell you)Free association (Write freely for 1 minute)Freudian “slip of the tongue”Projective Personality TestsRorschachThematic Apperception Test
17 Refresher: Psychodynamic Theories of Personality According to psychodynamic theories, what drives personality and human behavior?What are some methods that Freud employed to uncover this?Dream analysis, Free association- Can tell us about the unconscious, but don’t “assess”
18 Uncovering the Unconscious: Psychodynamic Assessments According to Freud, what is projection?With this in mind, how might you develop a method by which a person “projects” in order to assess their unconscious?
19 Uncovering the Unconscious: Psychodynamic Assessments Projective testsAmbiguous stimuliPatient projects their unconscious when they describe what they seeExamplesRorschach testThematic Apperception Test (TAT)
20 Rorschach Test “Blotto”- Interesting answers? Most commonly used P.T. (Behind MMPI- (Minn. Multiphasic Pers. Inv.)10 inkblots – 5 color, 5 black/whiteSubjects describe all 10 inkblotsExaminer then goes through cards again and asks questions for clarification/detailProvides subject with considerable freedom to respond
21 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Examiner chooses 10 cards with ambiguous black-and-white drawings of people in various emotional, yet undetailed situationsHave psychodynamic undertones (i.e. aggression)Subjects must tell a story about each card and themes provide insight
22 Experience the TestsTake the TAT test and have a partner “interpret” results using psychodynamic concepts!!Strengths and weaknesses of the test?Take the Word Association test!Come up with ten wordsSome words should include concepts that Freud believed affected a personalityi.e. “Mother”, “sex”, “red” (as in aggression)Read them to your partner- they should say first thing that comes to their mind when they hear that word. Analyze the results.
24 Assessing Projective Personality tests StrengthsEarly experiences do shape personalityHuman emotion and motivation are important in understanding personalityConcept of the unconscious is emphasizedUseful therapeutic techniquesCriticismsLack reliability and validity (recent attempts to standardize interpretations have resulted in more support)SubjectivePessimistic (drives are determined during childhood)Today, common results are posted online- biased results
25 Early ApplicationsProjective tests were once used for diagnosing psychological disordersRorschach intended it to be used for schizophrenic diagnoses, not projective testingExample:John Wayne GacyMurdered 33 boys in Chicago in 1970sInterviewed and given Projective Personality Assessments to determine existence of mental illnessBuried Dreams: Inside the Mind of a Serial KillerEwing and Cahill
26 Modern Applications Rorschach Exner’s Comprehensive System of scoring How much of the inkblot is referenced, story that is told, level of detail (i.e. Form, Movement, Color)Personality Assessment- Insight into underlying motivations of person’s current issues and behaviorsForensic PsychologyTATPersonality assessment, Personality disorders, thought disorders, crime suspect evaluation, high-stress occupation screeningsAlso used internationally (France, Argentina, India)
27 Other Projective Techniques (Provide interesting insight into personality, but lack reliability or clinical purpose)House, Tree, PersonDraw and describe eachWord AssociationMother, Father, SexComplete the sentenceA best friend _______Mothers ___________My worst experience was __________________.Next time you gaze at the clouds to determine a shape, think of what you may be projecting!!
28 Humanistic Theories Emphasize the goodness in humans You have the potential to control your futureWhy would Freud disagree with this?
30 Carl Rogers The impact of love Positive RegardConditional – you are only loved when you conform to others’ wishesUnconditional – you are loved no matter what choices you makePositive regard impacts personality and happinessReal self – what you really areIdeal self – what you want to beWill overlap if you get unconditional positive regard!REAL SELFIDEAL SELFREAL SELFIDEAL SELF
31 Behaviorist TheoriesBehaviorist theories claim that personality is formed through environmental stimuli – reinforcement and punishment.Example psychologists include Albert Bandura, John Watson and B.F. Skinner
32 Behaviorist Theories Albert Bandura Observational learning theoryBobo Doll experimentPeople learn what they watchIf you grow up watching your parents run marathons, you will be an active person that values fitness
33 Behaviorist Theories Classical Conditioning Watson and PavlovAspects of personality could be learned simply by pairing stimuli togetherWatson and Baby Albert experimentFear can be learnedYou fear new social situations because of an embarrassment that you suffered from in the past
34 Behaviorist Theories Operant Conditioning You will NOT swear, Johnny!Skinnerpersonality could be learned by being reinforced or punished for certain behaviors.You are a hardworking person because you’ve been rewarded for good grades by your parents
35 Cognitive TheoriesPersonality is primarily a function of thoughts and thought processes.Rotter’s Locus of ControlInternal Locus of Control – things that happen in your life are a result of your own actions.E.g. “I made varsity because I spent the whole off-season training to do so!”External Locus of Control – things that happen in your life are a result of forces beyond your control.E.g. “I made varsity because my horoscope said I would have a lucky day!”
36 Cognitive Theories Albert Bandura Self efficacy is defined as one’s belief that they will be successful in the things they do.Individuals with a higher sense of self efficacy tend to be happier and more successful.i.e. “Can I do this? Am I doubtful of myself?”If you are doubtful, you may not even try to push yourself in the first place
37 Cognitive Theories Walter Mischel Self-regulation.people often change their personality depending on the situation they are in.people change their actions and responses on the basis of past experiences as well as an assessment of the current situation.
38 Afterthoughts…If you want to know more about your personality, you can complete online “objective” testsMostly fit into the “trait-type” perspectiveGenerate different terms to describe you.Objective tests – Standardized, closed-endedSixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Cattell’s 16PF)Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)Myers-Briggs Personality InventoryPreferred by trait and type theorists