Presentation on theme: "Making Proteins DNA This image summarizes the processes of transcription and translation. What are the three stages in this process (central dogma) and."— Presentation transcript:
1Making ProteinsDNAThis image summarizes the processes of transcription and translation.What are the three stages in this process (central dogma) and where are they in this picture?mRNArRNAproteintRNA
2RNA RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) Contains Ribose as the sugar in its sugar-phosphate backboneRNA has Uracil rather than Thymine as a baseBase pairs: A – U C – G3 types of RNAmessenger (mRNA)transfer (tRNA)ribosomal (rRNA)
3Two Steps to Protein Synthesis Transcription: mRNA is made from a strand of DNATranslation: Protein is made by a ribosome by using mRNA as the set of “instructions.”
4Transcription in Prokaryotes DNA is transcribed into mRNA
5Translation in Prokaryotes mRNA serves as the instructional material to make proteins
6Transcription in Eukaryotes DNA is transcribed into pre-mRNA
7RNA Processing in Eukaryotes Non-coding regions of the mRNA, called introns, are removed from the pre-mRNA.
8Translation in Eukaryotes The mRNA with only the coding region (the exons) leaves the nucleus.Translation from mRNA to protein occurs in the cytoplasm.
9Steps of DNA Transcription Making mRNA from DNA Helicase does NOT unzip DNA at the gene of interestRNA polymerase unwinds and matches RNA nucleotide bases to DNA, using one side as a template.3. The mRNA strand is created. It now compliments the original DNA strand (G-C and A-U).4. Ligase helps the strand of DNA to close and again.5. mRNA strand moves out of nucleus to ribosomes, and the DNA zips up.
10Key Players in Translation rRNA = RNA that makes up a ribosometRNA = RNA that transfers specific amino acidsmRNA = carries the DNA message;RNA transcribed from DNACodon = 3 nucleotides in a row on a strand of mRNA that code for an amino acidAnticodon = 3 nucleotides in tRNA that base pair with the codonAmino Acids = monomers of proteins (20 in humans)
11Steps to Translation Making proteins from mRNA Ribosomes attach to the “start” codon of mRNA (AUG), signaling the beginning of the protein chainmRNA codons are matched to corresponding tRNA anticodons and appropriate amino acids are strung together.Dehydration synthesis occurs between the amino acids, and they join, making a protein chain with peptide bonds in betweenRibosomes detach when they come across a “stop” codon (UAA, UAG, UGA). Protein synthesis is complete.
16Why do you think RNA uses the “triplet code”? Do the math on your own or with a neighbor.
17CODON BINGOFill in the Bingo Card (on page 45) with the 20 different amino acids.Use your table on page 44 to helpWatch out for repeated amino acids!Wait for your teacher to begin calling out DNA letters to begin playing
18Translation ActivityYou and your classmates need to discover the hidden protein in your bag.Follow the instructions in the bag to unlock the mystery protein.
22ProteinsMade up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen (and some Sulfur)Proteins are responsible for many reactions
23Types of ProteinsI am completely unchanged, and ready for some more sucrose!1. Enzymes = Catalysts that speed up the rate of a chemical reactionBuild up or break down substrateFit together with its substrate like a “lock” and a “key”Not used up in the reactionWork in a very specific biological rangeUsually end with “-ase”I am an enzyme. I am going to try to convert you.Hi sweeties, Do you remember me?I am the active site. The substrate binds to me.I am a product, too. I am a fructose now.I am now a product. I am a glucose now.In addition to what you know. I am a substrate.
24Proteins 2. Structural Proteins 3. Transport Proteins Provides mechanical support to cells and tissues3. Transport ProteinsTransports small ions or molecules4. Motor ProteinsEnables structures to move
25Proteins 5. Hormones (signaling proteins) 6. Storage Carries signals from cell-to-celle.g., insulin6. StorageStores small molecules or ionse.g., iron is stored in the liver in ferritin7. Other specialized functionsDefense (immune system antibodies),Receptor proteins (in eyes and muscles to detect stimulus)
26Proteins Proteins monomers are called amino acids Peptide Bond: Bond between 2 Amino Acids:H2O
27Proteins A chain of amino acids are called “polypeptides” “Many Peptides”Polypeptides fold and twist to form a specific shapeTwo or more polypeptides form a complete proteinThese shapes allow proteins to functionPolypeptides
28Endo-membrane SystemA system of membrane organelles that are inter-related in their function
29How are the organelles of the endomembrane system inter-related? Take notes on the following slides as your teacher narrates what is happening
30What’s up? I am the Nucleus… what do I do for the cell? Do you remember me?I’ll give you a hint: I am in charge of making ribosomes and the RNA used to make proteins!Well, before we go too far, we must not forget about me! Sometimes I’m rough and sometimes I’m smooth… no matter what, I’m always important to protein synthesis!I have a bit of a complex, because I go by several different last names.However, my first name is always Golgi.I am a ribosomal subunit… soon to become a ribosome. Follow me as I travel to the E.R.How does this design compare to what we have already learned about protein synthesis?Which does give me a complex as well…
46Now let’s look at some more detailed animations!
47How are proteins created by the “free” ribosomes differ in destination from the proteins created by the “attached” ribosomes of the ER?Attached Ribosomes: They make proteins that are either1) secreted out of the cell2) attached to the plasma membrane3) stays enclosed in a membrane to function as another organelle, such as a lysosome.Free Ribosomes: They make proteins that stay within the cytoplasm. The cell uses these proteins itself.
48You will now create a poster of the endomembrane system to demonstrate your understanding of how all the organelles work together.