2 Sponge: Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 47 Topic: Ch Sponge: Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 47 Topic: Ch. 5 Connective Tissue Essential Question: Describe the general characteristics and functions of Connective tissue. Make a tree map of the three major cell types (on top of pg 46) Don’t forget to add it to your T.O.Contents!Ch. 5 Connective Tissue2.1 Atoms, Ions, and MoleculesDescribe the general characteristics and functions of Connective tissue. Make a tree map of the three major cell types
3 Connective Tissues: Comprise much of the body and are the most abundant type of tissue Bind structuresprovide support and protectionfill spacesstore fatproduce blood cellsprotect against infectionhelp repair tissue damage
4 * Farther apart than epithelial tissue C.T. has an extracellular matrix between tissue cells. This matrix consists of fibers and a ground substance whose consistency varies from fluid to semisolid to solid
5 Can usually divide and in most cases have a good blood supply and are well nourished Bone/cartilage- rigidLoose C.T. such as areolar, adipose, and dense C.T.- flexible
6 Connective Tissue: Major Cell Types The fibroblast is the most common kind of fixed cell in CT.Produce fibers by secreting protein. Stay in C.T. for extended periods of time
7 Macrophages originate as white blood cells Macrophages originate as white blood cells. Usually attached to fibers, can detach and move. Scavenger cells.
8 Mast cells are large and widely distributed. Located near blood vessels. Release heparin to prevent blood clotting and histamine to promote reactions to asthma and hay fever.
9 5.1 Clinical Application Questions What did scientists find when they looked beyond the collagens in the matrix?What is the basement membrane composed of?What happens if the balance of the components of the ECM are off?Name and explain one of the three diseases that can result.
10 Ch. 5 Categories of Connective Tissue Sponge: Set up Cornell Notes on pg. 49Topic: Ch. 5 Connective TissueEssential Question:Differentiate between loose connective tissue and dense tissue.Distinguish between reticular and elastic connective tissue.Don’t forget to add it to your T.O.Contents!Ch. 5 Categories of Connective Tissue2.1 Atoms, Ions, and MoleculesDifferentiate between loose connective tissue and dense tissue.Distinguish between reticular and elastic connective tissue.
11 Connective Tissue: Fibers Collagenous fibers are thick strands of collagen, which is the major structural protein of the body. Appear white.flexible, can resist forceEx: ligaments and tendonsElastic fibers are bundles of microfibrils embedded in elastin (a protein). Appear yellow. Can be stretched and deformed and will resume their shapeWeaker than collagenous fibers but more elastic.Found in vocal cords and air passages. (Where elasticity is needed).
12 Categories of Connective Tissue Loose connective tissue (areolar) forms delicate, thin membranes throughout the body.Cells are mainly widely scattered fibroblastsseparated by a gel-like ground substance that contains many collagenous and elastic fibers.Binds skin to underlying organs and fills spaces between muscles. Also beneath epithelium.
16 Adipose (fat) tissue Certain cells within CT store fat within their cytoplasm. Cushions joints and some organs. Insulates beneath the skin.Lies beneath the skin, between muscles, around the kidneys, in the abdomen, and around the heart.
32 Cartilage is a rigid connective tissue Cartilage is a rigid connective tissue. Largely composed of collagenous fibers in a gel-like ground substance.Support, frameworks, attachments, protects underlying tissue, forms structural models for many developing bones.Cartilage cells (chondrocytes) occupy chambers called lucunae.Cartilage lacks a direct blood supply.
33 Connective Tissue Categories Hyaline cartilage is the most common type of cartilage. Ends of bones, in the nose, and in respiratory passages.An embryo’s skeleton begin as hyaline cartilage “models” that bone replaces.
34 Connective Tissue Categories Elastic cartilage is very flexible. Contains many elastic fibers.Ears and parts of the larynx.
35 Connective Tissue Categories Fibrocartilage is very tough. Contains many collagenous fibers. Acts as a shock absorber.Intervertebral disks.
36 Connective Tissue Categories Bone is the most rigid connective tissue. Hardness is due to mineral salts (calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate). Also contains a large amount of collagen for toughness.Bone supports, forms blood cells, and protects.Bone matrix is deposited by osteocytes (bone cells), which form concentric patterns called an osteon.
37 Connective Tissue Categories Blood is composed of cells suspended in a fluid called blood plasma.Cells are red blood cells, white blood cells, and cellular fragments called platelets.RBCs transport gases. WBCs fight infection. Platelets are involved in blood clotting.
38 Connective Tissues General characteristics - most abundant tissue type many functionsbind structuresprovide support and protectionserve as frameworksfill spacesstore fatproduce blood cellsprotect against infectionshelp repair tissue damagehave a matrixhave varying degrees of vascularityhave cells that usually divide
39 Connective Tissue Major Cell Types Fibroblastsfixed cellmost common celllarge, star-shapedproduce fibersMacrophageswandering cellphagocyticimportant in injuryor infectionMast cellsfixed cellrelease heparinrelease histamine
40 Connective Tissue Fibers Collagenous fibersthickcomposed of collagengreat tensile strengthabundant in dense CThold structures togethertendons, ligamentsElastic fibersbundles of microfibrils embedded in elastinfibers branchelasticvocal cords, air passagesReticular fibersvery thin collagenous fibershighly branchedform supportive networks
42 Connective Tissues Loose connective tissue Adipose tissue mainly fibroblastsfluid to gel-like matrixcollagenous fiberselastic fibersbind skin to structuresbeneath most epitheliablood vessels nourishnearby epithelial cellsbetween musclesAdipose tissueadipocytescushionsinsulatesstore fatsbeneath skinbehind eyeballsaround kidneys and heart
43 Connective Tissues Dense connective tissue Reticular connective tissue composed of reticular fiberssupports internal organ wallswalls of liver, spleen, lymphatic organsDense connective tissuepacked collagenous fiberselastic fibersfew fibroblastsbind body parts togethertendons, ligaments, dermispoor blood supply
44 Connective Tissues Elastic connective tissue Bone (Osseous Tissue) abundant in elastic fiberssome collagenous fibersfibroblastsattachments between boneswalls of large arteries, airways, heartBone (Osseous Tissue)solid matrixsupportsprotectsforms blood cellsattachment for musclesskeletonosteocytes in lacunae
45 Connective Tissues Hyaline cartilage Cartilage Elastic cartilage most abundantends of bonesnose, respiratory passagesembryonic skeletonCartilagerigid matrixchondrocytes in lacunaepoor blood supplythree typeshyalineelasticfibrocartilageElastic cartilageflexibleexternal ear, larynxFibrocartilagevery toughshock absorberintervertebral discspads of knee and pelvic girdle
46 Connective Tissues Three types of cartilage Hyaline Cartilage Elastic CartilageFibrocartilage
47 Connective Tissues Blood fluid matrix called plasma red blood cells white blood cellsplateletstransportsdefendsinvolved in clottingthroughout body in blood vesselsheart