Binary Fission The equal division of the nuclear materials and cytoplasm of an organism resulting in two new organisms. Chromosomes are replicated and cell splits in half (no mitosis.) Common in unicellular organisms; paramecium, amoeba, and bacteria
Budding In unicellular organisms (yeast) cytoplasmic division is unequal. In multicellular organisms (hydra) there is a multicellular outgrowth from parent. The bud may detach or remain together to form a colony.
Sporulation Spores are mitotically produced and are single, specialized cells, released from the parent. Spores develop into new individuals under favorable moisture and temperature conditions; breadmold and mushrooms
Regeneration The development of an entire new organism from a part of the original organism. It also refers to the replacement of lost structures; lobster and planaria. *Invertebrates have more undifferentiated cells.
Vegetative Propagation part I Some multicellular plants reproduce by vegetative propagation. New plants develop from roots, stems or leaves of the parent plant. Cuttings; coleus & geranium Part of a roots, stem, or leaf; placed in a favorable environment develops into a new plant identical to the parent plant
Vegetative Propagation part II Bulbs; tulip – underground stem with thick leaves. Identical to and produced “like a bud” by the parent bulb Tubers; potato – thick underground storage stem. Placed in a favorable environment develops into a new plant identical to the parent plant
Vegetative Propagation part III Runners; strawberry – stem- like structures that grow from the parent plant’s stem on top of the ground; produce plants identical to the parent plant Grafting; seedless orange – upper stem of one plant (scion) and lower stem and roots of a second plant (stock); when the two sections grow together, they produce a new plant with the characteristics of the upper plant (scion)
This grafted tree produces 40 different types of fruit! Science Alert Article: http://pda.sciencealert.com.au/news/20142107-25892.html TED Video Clip: http://new.livestream.com/tedx/manhattan2014/videos/438643 99