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Introduction 1-1 1DT066 Distributed Information System Chapter 4 Network Layer.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction 1-1 1DT066 Distributed Information System Chapter 4 Network Layer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction 1-1 1DT066 Distributed Information System Chapter 4 Network Layer

2 C HAPTER 4: N ETWORK L AYER Chapter goals: understand principles behind network layer services: network layer service models forwarding versus routing how a router works routing (path selection) dealing with scale advanced topics: IPv6, mobility instantiation, implementation in the Internet 4-2 Network Layer

3 C HAPTER 4: N ETWORK L AYER Network Layer Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing IPv6

4 N ETWORK LAYER Network Layer 4-4 transport segment from sending to receiving host on sending side encapsulates segments into datagrams on receiver side, delivers segments to transport layer network layer protocols in every host, router router examines header fields in all IP datagrams passing through it application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical network data link physical

5 T WO K EY N ETWORK -L AYER F UNCTIONS forwarding: move packets from router’s input to appropriate router output routing: determine route taken by packets from source to dest. routing algorithms 4-5 Network Layer analogy: r routing: process of planning trip from source to dest r forwarding: process of getting through single interchange

6 Network Layer value in arriving packet’s header routing algorithm local forwarding table header value output link Interplay between routing and forwarding

7 C HAPTER 4: N ETWORK L AYER Network Layer Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing ICMP IPv6

8 N ETWORK LAYER CONNECTION AND CONNECTION - LESS SERVICE datagram network provides network-layer connectionless service VC network provides network-layer connection service 4-8 Network Layer

9 V IRTUAL CIRCUITS Network Layer 4-9 each packet carries VC identifier (not destination host address) every router on source-dest path maintains “state” for each passing connection link, router resources (bandwidth, buffers) may be allocated to VC (dedicated resources = predictable service) “source-to-dest path behaves much like telephone circuit” performance-wise network actions along source-to-dest path

10 F ORWARDING TABLE Network Layer VC number interface number Incoming interface Incoming VC # Outgoing interface Outgoing VC # … … Forwarding table in northwest router: Routers maintain connection state information!

11 VIRTUAL CIRCUITS: SIGNALING PROTOCOLS Network Layer used in ATM, frame-relay, X.25 not used in today’s Internet application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical 1. Initiate call 2. incoming call 3. Accept call 4. Call connected 5. Data flow begins 6. Receive data

12 DATAGRAM NETWORKS Network Layer no call setup at network layer routers: no state about end-to-end connections no network-level concept of “connection” packets forwarded using destination host address packets between same source-dest pair may take different paths application transport network data link physical application transport network data link physical 1. Send data 2. Receive data

13 F ORWARDING TABLE Network Layer Destination Address Range Link Interface through through through otherwise 3 4 billion possible entries

14 L ONGEST PREFIX MATCHING Network Layer Prefix Match Link Interface otherwise 3 DA: Examples DA: Which interface?

15 C HAPTER 4: N ETWORK L AYER Network Layer Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing IPv6

16 ROUTER ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW Two key router functions: run routing algorithms/protocol (RIP, OSPF, BGP) forwarding datagrams from incoming to outgoing link Network Layer

17 C HAPTER 4: N ETWORK L AYER Network Layer Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing IPv6

18 THE INTERNET NETWORK LAYER Network Layer Host, router network layer functions: forwarding table Routing protocols path selection RIP, OSPF, BGP IP protocol addressing conventions datagram format packet handling conventions ICMP protocol error reporting router “signaling” Transport layer: TCP, UDP Link layer physical layer Network layer

19 C HAPTER 4: N ETWORK L AYER Network Layer Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing IPv6

20 IP DATAGRAM FORMAT Network Layer ver length 32 bits data (variable length, typically a TCP or UDP segment) 16-bit identifier header checksum time to live 32 bit source IP address IP protocol version number header length (bytes) max number remaining hops (decremented at each router) for fragmentation/ reassembly total datagram length (bytes) upper layer protocol to deliver payload to head. len type of service “type” of data flgs fragment offset upper layer 32 bit destination IP address Options (if any)

21 IP FRAGMENTATION & REASSEMBLY network links have MTU (max.transfer size) largest possible link-level frame. large IP datagram divided (“fragmented”) within net one datagram becomes several datagrams “reassembled” only at final destination IP header bits used to identify, order related fragments fragmentation: in: one large datagram out: 3 smaller datagrams reassembly

22 IP FRAGMENTATION AND REASSEMBLY Network Layer ID =x offset =0 fragflag =0 length =4000 ID =x offset =0 fragflag =1 length =1500 ID =x offset =185 fragflag =1 length =1500 ID =x offset =370 fragflag =0 length =1040 One large datagram becomes several smaller datagrams Example r 4000 byte datagram r MTU = 1500 bytes 1480 bytes in data field offset = 1480/8

23 C HAPTER 4: N ETWORK L AYER Network Layer Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing IPv6

24 IP ADDRESSING: INTRODUCTION Network Layer IP address: 32-bit identifier for host, router interface interface: connection between host/router and physical link router’s typically have multiple interfaces host typically has one interface IP addresses associated with each interface =

25 S UBNETS Network Layer IP address: subnet part (high order bits) host part (low order bits) What’s a subnet ? device interfaces with same subnet part of IP address can physically reach each other without intervening router network consisting of 3 subnets subnet

26 S UBNETS Network Layer To determine the subnets, detach each interface from its host or router, creating islands of isolated networks. Each isolated network is called a subnet / / /24 Subnet mask: /24

27 S UBNETS Network Layer How many?

28 IP ADDRESSING : CIDR CIDR: Classless InterDomain Routing subnet portion of address of arbitrary length address format: a.b.c.d/x, where x is # bits in subnet portion of address Network Layer subnet part host part /23

29 IP ADDRESSES: HOW TO GET ONE? Q: How does a host get IP address? hard-coded by system admin in a file Windows: control-panel->network->configuration->tcp/ip- >properties UNIX: /etc/rc.config DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol: dynamically get address from as server “plug-and-play” Network Layer

30 DHCP: D YNAMIC H OST C ONFIGURATION P ROTOCOL Goal: allow host to dynamically obtain its IP address from network server when it joins network Allows reuse of addresses Network Layer A B E DHCP server arriving DHCP client needs address in this network

31 DHCP CLIENT - SERVER SCENARIO Network Layer DHCP server: arriving client time DHCP discover src : , 68 dest.: ,67 yiaddr: transaction ID: 654 DHCP offer src: , 67 dest: , 68 yiaddrr: transaction ID: 654 Lifetime: 3600 secs DHCP request src: , 68 dest:: , 67 yiaddrr: transaction ID: 655 Lifetime: 3600 secs DHCP ACK src: , 67 dest: , 68 yiaddrr: transaction ID: 655 Lifetime: 3600 secs

32 IP ADDRESSES: HOW TO GET ONE? Q: How does network get subnet part of IP addr? A: gets allocated portion of its provider ISP’s address space ISP's block / Network Layer Organization /23 Organization /23 Organization /23... ….. …. …. Organization /23

33 HIERARCHICAL ADDRESSING: ROUTE AGGREGATION Network Layer “Send me anything with addresses beginning /20” / / /23 Fly-By-Night-ISP Organization 0 Organization 7 Internet Organization 1 ISPs-R-Us “Send me anything with addresses beginning /16” /23 Organization Hierarchical addressing allows efficient advertisement of routing information:

34 NAT: N ETWORK A DDRESS T RANSLATION local network (e.g., home network) /24 rest of Internet Datagrams with source or destination in this network have /24 address for source, destination (as usual) All datagrams leaving local network have same single source NAT IP address: , different source port numbers

35 NAT: N ETWORK A DDRESS T RANSLATION Motivation: local network uses just one IP address as far as outside world is concerned: range of addresses not needed from ISP: just one IP address for all devices can change addresses of devices in local network without notifying outside world can change ISP without changing addresses of devices in local network devices inside local net not explicitly addressable, visible by outside world (a security plus) Network Layer

36 NAT: N ETWORK A DDRESS T RANSLATION Implementation: NAT router must: outgoing datagrams: replace (source IP address, port #) of every outgoing datagram to (NAT IP address, new port #)... remote clients/servers will respond using (NAT IP address, new port #) as destination addr. remember (in NAT translation table) every (source IP address, port #) to (NAT IP address, new port #) translation pair incoming datagrams: replace (NAT IP address, new port #) in dest fields of every incoming datagram with corresponding (source IP address, port #) stored in NAT table Network Layer

37 NAT: N ETWORK A DDRESS T RANSLATION Network Layer S: , 3345 D: , : host sends datagram to , 80 NAT translation table WAN side addr LAN side addr , , 3345 …… S: , 80 D: , S: , 5001 D: , : NAT router changes datagram source addr from , 3345 to , 5001, updates table S: , 80 D: , : Reply arrives dest. address: , : NAT router changes datagram dest addr from , 5001 to , 3345

38 C HAPTER 4: N ETWORK L AYER Network Layer Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing IPv6

39 IP V 6 Initial motivation: 32-bit address space soon to be completely allocated. Additional motivation: header format helps speed processing/forwarding header changes to facilitate QoS IPv6 datagram format: fixed-length 40 byte header no fragmentation allowed Network Layer

40 IP V 6 H EADER (C ONT ) Network Layer Priority: identify priority among datagrams in flow Flow Label: identify datagrams in same “flow.” (concept of“flow” not well defined). Next header: identify upper layer protocol for data

41 C HAPTER 4: SUMMARY Network Layer Introduction 4.2 Virtual circuit and datagram networks 4.3 What’s inside a router 4.4 IP: Internet Protocol Datagram format IPv4 addressing IPv6 4.5 Routing algorithms Link state Distance Vector Hierarchical routing 4.6 Routing in the Internet RIP OSPF BGP 4.7 Broadcast and multicast routing


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