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Review. How many times can a normal cell divide? Max of 50 or 60 times What are the three ways normal growth is controlled? Anchorage dependence – divide.

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Presentation on theme: "Review. How many times can a normal cell divide? Max of 50 or 60 times What are the three ways normal growth is controlled? Anchorage dependence – divide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review

2 How many times can a normal cell divide? Max of 50 or 60 times What are the three ways normal growth is controlled? Anchorage dependence – divide only if anchored to a tissue in the body Density-dependent inhibition – divide only if there is room Genes – genes tell cell to go through cell cycle What is apoptosis? Cell suicide is called apoptosis. Why do you think apoptosis is so important to cells?

3 How are cancer cells different from normal cells? Cancer cells do not follow the cell’s control system… They… don't stop reproducing don't obey signals from other cells don't stick together don't specialize, but stay immature

4 What is a mutation?  Any change in your DNA sequence How many mutations does it take to develop cancer?  Many

5 Goal of Hit Simulator Activity: (We skipped this) (… it was a graph… you change the settings and observe how the graph changes with the different settings…) It takes multiple mutations, not just 1 to develop cancer Mutation rates (how likely you are to get a mutation) varies Can vary by age (older more likely to mutate) Can vary by lifestyle (risky behaviors lead to mutations)

6 Make a table with the heads below and fill it in as you read the next 5 slides! GeneWhat it normally doesWhat it does when it mutates Proto-onco genes Tumor suppressor genes P53 gene DNA repair genes Angiogenesis genes Metastasis genes

7 Gene What it normally does What it does when it mutates Proto-onco genes Encourages cell to multiple or double. Once you are fully grown this does not happen very often Mutated (oncogenes) tell the cell to multiply all the time. Too many cells for the body Tumor suppressor genes Stop the cell from multiplying or doubling If mutated – cell may carry on and on multiplying. Becomes immortal P53 gene Tumor suppressor gene. Stop cells with other damaged genes from reproducing and encourages them to destroy themselves Apoptosis does not occur even when necessary. Cells will continue to accumulate mutation

8 GeneWhat it normally does What it does when it mutates DNA repair genes Repair any damage to the DNA that make up cell’s genes. Mutations are not repaired and cell can copy the mutation into its daughter cells Angiogenes is genes Proteins that switch blood vessel growth on and off Abnormal blood vessel formation around cancerous tumors – limitless food and oxygen supply to tumor Metastasis genes Usually cells in an area stay attached and together Allows cells to detach and move throughout the body to other places

9 The biggest ‘risk factor’ in developing cancer is not smoking or tanning, but getting old, how do you think we can explain that? Can take a long time before enough mutations to happen for a cell to become cancerous. (This is why most types of cancer are more common in older people) The older you are the more time you have had… To be exposed to carcinogens. For accidents to occur when cells reproduce.

10 What is a carcinogen? A chemical that causes cancer! Have you ever saw Erin Brochovich?

11 What are the 3 most common cancers in men? Women?

12 List the 3 ways we treat cancer? (if you are not familiar with any of them you may want to write a brief description) 1. Chemotherapy – drug treatment, cytotoxic drugs 2. Radiation – X-ray, electrons, radioactive material 3. Surgery – cutting away tissue from the body What is the difference between traditional chemotherapy and ‘magic bullet’ drugs? Chemo – targets cells to kill Magic bullet – targets proteins (replace or block) instead of killing cells

13 ‘Risky Behaviors’ that may lead to people developing cancer… Smoking / chewing tobacco Drinking Radiation (UV or X-ray) Not eating a healthy diet Not exercising regularly Workplace environment / exposure Other illnesses (including sexually transmitted diseases)

14 Cancer Vocabulary Review The Cell Cycle "Battleship"


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