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Exercise Science Muscle Mechanics & Sliding Filament Theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise Science Muscle Mechanics & Sliding Filament Theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise Science Muscle Mechanics & Sliding Filament Theory

2 Functions of Muscles – Learning Targets Be able to describe how the muscle contracts in an overview. Learn the properties of muscles and how they work. Understand that the brain has a direct link to the muscles through the “motor unit” ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the

3 Functions of Muscles – Major Questions 1.Describe what is happening to the sarcomere during concentric and isometric contractions. 2.List the 12 steps of contraction with as much detail as possible. 3.What chemicals are involved in muscle contraction? 4.What would happen if one of these chemicals (calcium, ATP) wasn’t present during an athletic event? Homework: a) figure out the chemical composition of ATP and how it breaks down. b) When it breaks down, what happens in the muscle? ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the

4 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Major Functions of Muscles  Movement  Includes: breathing, eating, and the beating of our hearts  Support  Heat production There are over 600 muscles in the human body.

5 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Three Types of Muscle Tissue  Skeletal muscles:  Voluntary, striated, and attach to bones by tendons and other tissue  Cardiac muscles:  Involuntary, striated, and found in one place – the heart  Smooth muscles:  Involuntary, non-striated, and surround the body’s internal organs Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle

6 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Properties of Muscle Fibre IrritabilityRefers to muscle responding to stimuli ContractibilityRefers to muscle shortening in length Elasticity Refers to muscle stretching and returning to normal position ExtensibilityRefers to muscle extending in length ConductivityRefers to muscle transmitting nerve impulses

7 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Neuromuscular Junction Sarcolemma Axon Receptor Neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach) Axon Terminal Synaptic Cleft

8 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. The Motor Unit Dendrites Neuron cell body Muscle fibres Neuromuscular junction Terminal branches Axon hillock Myelin sheath Neurolemma Motor neuron Direction of action potential Motor end plate

9 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. The Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle  Muscle fibre looking outward:  Perimysium  Binds muscle fibres together  Epimysium  Sheath enveloping entire muscle  Muscle fibre looking inward:  Endomysium  Sheath of connective tissue surrounding muscle fibre  Sarcolemma  Contains cytoplasm (sarcoplasm)  Myofibrils  Contain actin and myosin  Sarcomeres  Contains myosin and actin Perimysium Muscle fibre Epimysium Endomysium Muscle belly Tendon

10 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Muscle Fibre Z line Sarcomere Sarcoplasmic reticulum Sarcolemma Tendon Thin filament Thick filament Muscle belly Muscle Fibre Sarcomere EpimysiumPerimysium Z line Myofibril

11 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. The Sliding Filament Theory  Myosin crossbridges (small “bridges” on the thick filaments that extend to the thin filaments):  Attach, rotate, detach, and reattach in rapid succession  Results in the sliding or overlap of the actin and myosin filaments  Causes sarcomere to contract (muscle contraction)  Known as the sliding filament theory

12 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. The Sliding Filament Theory  Myosin crossbridges (small “bridges” on the thick filaments that extend to the thin filaments)

13 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. The Sliding Filament Theory  Myosin crossbridges  Attach, rotate, detach, and re-attach in rapid succession

14 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. The Sliding Filament Theory  Myosin crossbridges  Results in the sliding or overlap of the actin and myosin filaments  Causes sarcomere to contract (muscle contraction)

15 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. The Role of Adenosine Triphosphate  The sliding filament theory at the molecular level:  Nerve impulse transmitted through the muscle fibre and releases calcium ions  Calcium (in presence of troponin and tropomyosin) facilitates the interaction of myosin and actin molecules  Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy source behind the release of calcium  ATP detaches myosin from the actin molecule  ATP must be replaced through food metabolism for process to continue

16 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. The Role of Calcium Sarcolemma Outer vessicle of sarcoplasmic reticulum (Terminal cisternae) Transverse tubule (T-tubule) A band Myofibrils Longitudinal tubules of sarcoplasmic reticulum I band Triad Z line H zone Terminal cisternae Transverse tubule Terminal cisternae

17 ©Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc All material is copyright protected. It is illegal to copy any of this material. This material may be used only in a course of study in which Exercise Science: An Introduction to Health and Physical Education (Temertzoglou/Challen) is the required textbook. Resources – lesson on SFT and video   This resource will show you each step of the contraction and explain how the sarcomere works  Sliding Filament Theory Video: Part 1: Part 2:  Other sliding Filament Theory Video:


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