Presentation on theme: "Connect! Have you ever grown potatoes? You can’t buy seeds at a garden store, so how do you grow potatoes? What is a common way to get a new spider plant?"— Presentation transcript:
Connect! Have you ever grown potatoes? You can’t buy seeds at a garden store, so how do you grow potatoes? What is a common way to get a new spider plant? You also can’t buy daffodil seeds, so how do you grow daffodils?
1. Binary Fission the equal division of the chromosomes and cytoplasm of an organism resulting in 2 new organisms done by unicellular protists such as amoeba and paramecium
2. Budding although the genetic material (chromosomes) are equally divided, the cytoplasmic division is unequal new cells may detach from each other or may remain together and form a colony (yeasts)
3. Sporulation spores, which are single cells, are released from the parent and can develop into new individuals (bread mold) note: spores are different from seeds… they do not form from sex cells from 2 parents as seeds do.
4. Regeneration when a new organism develops from part of the original organism this happens more easily in invertebrates bc they have more undifferentiated cells (cells without jobs) than do vertebrate animals
a starfish can develop from a single ray and part of the central disc while lobsters can regenerate lost claws
planaria can be cut in half and develop into two new worms
Chunk! Describe binary fission and name an organism that carries it out. How is budding different from binary fission? Name 2 organisms that use budding. Define spore. How are spores different from seeds? Define regeneration. Why is regeneration more common in invertebrate animals? Name 3 organisms that can regenerate.
5. Vegetative Propagation = Asexual Plant Reproduction when new plants develop from roots, stems, or leaves of the parent plant
Cutting geranium and many other types of plants
Bulbs garlic above right…each clove is genetically identical to all the others…asexual repro! daffodil at left, each plant is identical to the other…
Tuber each eye, if separated, will grow into a genetically identical potato plant
Runner above ground stems can be cut once little plants have roots… all genetically identical – asexual repro! strawberry plant
Grafting fastest type of vegetative propagation similar to an organ transplant examples: seedless orange, multi-fruit trees
Navel Orange A single mutation in 1820 in an orchard of sweet oranges planted at a monastery in Brazil yielded the navel orange. The mutation causes the orange to develop a second orange at the base of the original fruit, opposite the stem, as a conjoined twin in a set of smaller segments embedded within the peel of the larger orange. From the outside, it looks similar to the human navel, thus its name. Because the mutation left the fruit seedless, and therefore sterile, the only means available to cultivate more of this new variety is to graft cuttings onto other varieties of citrus tree. Two such cuttings of the original tree were transplanted to Riverside, California in 1870, which eventually led to worldwide popularity. Today, navel oranges continue to be produced via cutting and grafting. This does not allow for the usual selective breeding methodologies, and so not only do the navel oranges of today have exactly the same genetic makeup as the original tree, and are therefore clones, in a sense, all navel oranges can be considered to be the fruit of that single over-a- century-old tree. This is similar to the common yellow seedless banana, the Cavendish. A sectioned navel orange. The underdeveloped twin is located on the bottom.
Chunk! Define vegetative propagation. Is it asexual or sexual repro? What is the fastest type of veg prop? Give 3 types of vegetative propagation other than grafting, and name organisms that use each type. Why would a farmer want to use asexual reproduction for crops instead of sexual reproduction by seed?