# Electricity. Question: What is electricity?What is electricity?

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Electricity

Question: What is electricity?What is electricity?

Answer: Electricity is a form of energy. Like light, heat, and sound, electricity can be found free in nature. Electricity completely surrounds us!Electricity is a form of energy. Like light, heat, and sound, electricity can be found free in nature. Electricity completely surrounds us!

F. Y. I. Electricity starts with electrons.Electricity starts with electrons.

Law of Electric Charges: The law that states like charges repel (move away from one another) and opposite charges attract (move towards one another)The law that states like charges repel (move away from one another) and opposite charges attract (move towards one another)

Electric Force: The force of attraction or repulsion on a charged particle that is due to an electric fieldThe force of attraction or repulsion on a charged particle that is due to an electric field

Friction: A method of charging an object by RUBBING it against another object – electrons are “wiped” from one object to anotherA method of charging an object by RUBBING it against another object – electrons are “wiped” from one object to another

F. Y. I. When a balloon is rubbed against a person’s hair, friction is created.When a balloon is rubbed against a person’s hair, friction is created. When a person rubs their feet on carpet, friction is created.When a person rubs their feet on carpet, friction is created.

Conduction: A method of charging an object that occurs when electrons move from one object to another by DIRECT CONTACT.A method of charging an object that occurs when electrons move from one object to another by DIRECT CONTACT.

F. Y. I. You will see conduction happen this week during a demonstration with an electroscope!!You will see conduction happen this week during a demonstration with an electroscope!!

Induction: A method of charging an object that occurs when charges in an uncharged object are rearranged WITHOUT DIRECT CONTACT with a charged object.A method of charging an object that occurs when charges in an uncharged object are rearranged WITHOUT DIRECT CONTACT with a charged object.

F. Y. I. You will see several examples of induction in class this week.You will see several examples of induction in class this week.

F. Y. I. Metals have electrons that can detach from their atoms and move around. The detached electrons make it easy for electricity to flow through these materials. These materials are called conductors.Metals have electrons that can detach from their atoms and move around. The detached electrons make it easy for electricity to flow through these materials. These materials are called conductors.

Conductor: A material in which charges can freely move.A material in which charges can freely move.

F. Y. I. The following objects are examples of conductors:The following objects are examples of conductors: –SilverBronze –CopperMercury –GoldGraphite –IronDirty water –SteelEarth –BrassPeople

Question: What do these objects have in common (other than the fact that they are all conductors)?What do these objects have in common (other than the fact that they are all conductors)?

Answer: They are all metals or contain metal materials!They are all metals or contain metal materials!

Question: Why are people conductors (we certainly are not made of silver or gold)?Why are people conductors (we certainly are not made of silver or gold)?

Answer: We have trace amounts of metals in our bodies. Examples: IronWe have trace amounts of metals in our bodies. Examples: Iron Calcium Calcium Magnesium Magnesium Zinc Zinc

F. Y. I. Many materials contain electrons that are bound tightly to atoms. These materials are not able to conduct electricity because the electrons in them are not able to detach from the atom. These materials are called insulators.Many materials contain electrons that are bound tightly to atoms. These materials are not able to conduct electricity because the electrons in them are not able to detach from the atom. These materials are called insulators.

Insulator: A material in which charges cannot move freely.A material in which charges cannot move freely.

F. Y. I. The following objects are examples of insulators:The following objects are examples of insulators: –GlassDry cotton –RubberDry paper –OilDry wood –PorcelainPlastic –CeramicAir –QuartzDiamond –Pure Water

Question: If air is an insulator, how can a bolt of lightning flash from a cloud to the ground through a non- conducting material?If air is an insulator, how can a bolt of lightning flash from a cloud to the ground through a non- conducting material?

Answer: There is so much electrical energy stored up between the cloud and the ground. Eventually the energy is able to rip the electrons off the atoms in the air. Once the ripping process starts, the air becomes plasma. The plasma can easily conduct electricity with the free electrons. The bolt of lightning shoots to the ground through the plasma conductor.There is so much electrical energy stored up between the cloud and the ground. Eventually the energy is able to rip the electrons off the atoms in the air. Once the ripping process starts, the air becomes plasma. The plasma can easily conduct electricity with the free electrons. The bolt of lightning shoots to the ground through the plasma conductor.

Question: Is water a conductor or an insulator?Is water a conductor or an insulator?

Pure water is an insulator, but the water you get from the tap is a conductor because of the added chemicals. Answer:

Static Electricity: Electric charge at rest: generally produced by friction or inductionElectric charge at rest: generally produced by friction or induction

Electric Discharge: The release of electricity stored in a sourceThe release of electricity stored in a source