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High Availability & Scalability in SQL Server 2005 Rick Brewis, Microsoft Technology Specialist Brian Madden, NuSoft Solutions.

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Presentation on theme: "High Availability & Scalability in SQL Server 2005 Rick Brewis, Microsoft Technology Specialist Brian Madden, NuSoft Solutions."— Presentation transcript:

1 High Availability & Scalability in SQL Server 2005 Rick Brewis, Microsoft Technology Specialist Brian Madden, NuSoft Solutions Senior Consultant

2 High Availability and Scalability: Agenda High Availability Also known as business continuance Refers to technologies to ensure continued availability – a matter of kind Primary new technology: database mirroring Scalability Keeping a database available as you scale up or out Primary new technology: partitioning

3 High Availability Overview

4 High Availability – Overview Blend of people, process, and technology Process enforces “best practices” Technology enables people and processes to come together in providing maximum uptime

5 SQL Server 2005 HA Technologies Cold Standby No failover with potential data loss Backup / restore Detach / copy / attach Warm Standby Manual failover with potential data loss Log Shipping Transactional Replication Database Mirroring - high performance mode Hot Standby Automatic failover and zero data loss Failover Clustering Database Mirroring - high availability mode

6 Cold Standby Solutions Backup / Restore Data files may be smaller – only used pages are backed up Log backups allow restore to point in time Generally a longer restore time Detach / Copy / Attach Copies entire files No possibility of rolling forward subsequent logs For a cold standby: Manually detect failure and fail over Some data loss Per database only, not per server Works on standard servers Client must know how to re-connect Slowest failover with most downtime Backup / Restore Detach / Copy / Attach

7 Warm Standby 1: Log Shipping Provide Multiple copies and Manual failover Log Shipping Basic idea: Automated Backup, Copy, Restore Log Database scope Secondary database is accessible but read-only Users must exit for next log to be applied Database backups no longer block log backups Log Shipping

8 Monitoring Server Transfer Logins Primary Server Secondary Server(s) 3. Transaction log restored 1. Transaction log backed up Log Backup 2. Transaction log copied Log Backup

9 Log Shipping Notes Automatically copies and restores transaction log files from the primary to one or more secondary databases Transfers all database objects, all changes Managing large log files can be a problem SQL Server 2005 log shipping Revised from SQL Server 2000 Available on EE, Std, and WG

10 Warm Standby 2: Peer-to-peer Transactional Replication Primarily designed for availability Often used for scale out of read activity Only data is copied, not system tables Failover must be customized, but can be automatic Only copies data Can work with a subset of a database Replicated data is accessible for read activity (i.e. reporting) Very low latency: seconds Replication

11 DistributionAgent DistDBLogreaderAgent DistributionAgent DistDBLogreaderAgent DistributionAgent DistDBLogreaderAgent “ West” “East” “ South” Peer-to-peer Transactional Replication

12 Peer-to-Peer Transactional Replication Notes New in SQL Server 2005 All nodes are peers of each other Table schema must be identical at all sites Each node publishes updates made on its data Each node subscribes to other nodes and receives their changes A given set of data (row) can be updated at only one site at a time Data range ownership is application-defined No conflict detection SQL Server prevents an update from cascading Enables load-balancing and high availability Can be used for a warm or hot standby Small possibility of data loss on failure, depending on latency

13 Hot Standby 1: Clustering Automatic failover At the SQL Server instance level, not database level Preserves server and database dependencies No committed work loss Based on Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) Multiple nodes provide availability Maximum of 2, 4, or 8 nodes depending on OS edition Automatic detection and failover, transparent to client Requires Cluster-certified hardware: See the Windows Catalog: Clustered Failover Cluster

14 Clustering Client PCs Node ANode B Shared Disk Array Heartbeat SQL Server

15 Clustering Notes (SQL Server 2005) More nodes are now supported Matches the Windows OS limits Two-node Failover Clustering is available in Standard Unattended setup now available Support for mounted volumes (Mount Points) Full support for Windows Majority Node Set quorum All SQL Server data services participate Database Engine, SQL Server Agent, Full-Text Search Analysis Services – Now has multiple instances Managing and troubleshooting a cluster can be complex

16 Hot Standby 2: Database Mirroring Databases are mirrored, not instances Does not account for database and server dependencies Automatic Failover Very fast failover Less than five seconds in many cases No loss of committed work Manual failover also possible New mirror can automatically re-sync after failover Potential for automatic, transparent client redirect Client must use ADO.NET or SQL Native Client Database Mirroring

17 Database Mirroring: HA mode Mirror Principal Witness Application SQL Server

18 Database Mirroring Modes High-Availability Mode Safety set to FULL: synchronous operation Database is available whenever a quorum exists Witness is required for automatic failover High-Protection Mode Safety FULL: synchronous operation No witness – quorum provided by partners If the principal loses quorum, it stops servicing the database Ensures high protection; database is never in ‘exposed’ state Manual failover only, no automatic failover Designed as a transition mode High-Performance Mode Safety set to OFF: asynchronous operation Manual failover only: forced service with potential data loss

19 Database Mirroring Notes 1 Hardware Works with standard computers, storage, and networks No shared storage components, virtually no distance limitations Impact to transaction throughput Zero to minimal, depending on environment / workload

20 Database Mirroring Notes 2 Role of the Witness is to verify principal and mirror for producing a quorum To automatically survive the loss of one server you must have at least three Prevents a “split brain” Two out of three vote required for failover To become a new principal, the mirror must talk to at least one other server The witness settles the issue of whether the principal is down

21 Witness The witness must be an instance of SQL Server 2005 Can be a SQL Server Express instance A server can be a witness for multiple mirroring sessions Witness consumes very little resources The witness is not a single point of failure The mirroring partners can form a quorum on their own

22 Safety versus Performance Database Mirroring has two safety levels FULL – commit when logged on Mirror Allows automatic failover No data loss OFF – commit when logged on Principal System does its best to keep up Prevents failover; to make mirror available Must ‘force’ service Or terminate Database Mirroring session

23 Transparent Client Redirect Client automatically redirected if the principal is down Upon initial connection to a principal, the client library caches the mirror name from the principal If the client attempts to reconnect because the connection is lost If the old principal is not available, the client library automatically redirects connection to mirror (new principal)

24 Comparing SQL Server 2005 HA Technologies HA TechnologyEnterpriseStandardWorkgroupExpress Log ShippingYes N/A Peer-to-Peer Replication Yes??N/A Failover ClusteringYes2-node only N/A Database MirroringYesSafety Full Witness only

25 Scalability/Availability Enhancements Availability Enhancements Database Snapshots Table Partitioning

26 Availability Enhancements Online Operations Checksum verification Fast recovery Online restore Backup to mirrored media Instant file initialization Full-text backup and restore Online Index Operations Snapshot Isolation Readers don’t block Writers, Writers don’t block readers Database Snapshots Table partitioning

27 Database Snapshots

28 User Error Users, applications, and DBAs do make errors Database Snapshots solve the problem by allowing the database to go back in time Data lost as database goes back in time Must be created before the error

29 Snapshots General Snapshot of a database at a point in time Created instantly Read only Base database continues to change Snapshot does not restrict the base database Snapshot requires a different database name from base database Revert to previously created Snapshot to recover from errors

30 Snapshot Technology Extremely space efficient Does not require a complete copy of the data Shares unchanged pages of the database Only requires extra storage for changed pages Uses a “copy on write” mechanism Snapshot does affect performance on the base database

31 ValueR D B H J L Y M Space Used Command Create Northwind_SS NorthwindNorthwind_SS Update Northwind 0%Value DX Read Northwind_SS 12.5% Result: Snapshot (Copy on Write) DD

32 Snapshots Database Mirroring Multiple Snapshots are allowed on the Mirror Each Snapshot is taken at a different time Each Snapshot has a different name Snapshot on Mirror may affect performance on Principal Snapshots can exist forever Constrained by resources

33 Reporting on a Mirror Use database Snapshots on Mirror Mirror Principal Reporting Client Database Mirroring OLTP Clients Noon Witness 2PM

34 Reporting on the Mirror Limitations Schema of Snapshot cannot change Snapshot is static New data is not available Snapshot may affect performance Consider Replication for a dedicated, scale out reporting solution

35 Table Partitioning

36 Scale-up: Allow easy management of very large tables and indexes (data scale-up) For example Fast Insert or Delete of large quantities of data SQL Server Enterprise Edition feature Take advantage of large machines Better scaling of some operators Better scaling of some operators Take advantage of collocation Joins of large tables Improve concurrency Lock escalation only within a partition

37 How Partitioning Works Data in a Table is separated into different pieces instead of a single heap or B-Tree Data still logically belongs to a single table A, B, CD, E, FG, H, IJ, K, L A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L Non-Partitioned Partitioned

38 What Can Be Partitioned? Objects that may be partitioned Base Tables Indexes (Secondary or Clustered) Indexed Views Row is the smallest unit of partitioning (only “horizontal” partitioning)

39 Partitioned Table Table IDc1c2c3c4 130A 250B 320B 410L 550Y 650A 720F Filegroup3 Filegroup5 Filegroup2 Filegroup5 Filegroup1 Filegroup5 Filegroup Part. FunctionPart. Scheme

40 Partition Function Object CREATE PARTITION FUNCTION PFR (smallint) AS RANGE LEFT FOR VALUES (10,20,30,40,50,60) RANGE partition function specifies the boundaries of the ranges LEFT or RIGHT keyword specifies to which of the intervals the boundary value belongs There are no holes in the partitioned domain even if not all values are attainable Discourages use of the PF as a constraint

41 Partition Scheme Object Assigns partitions to physical storage (Filegroups) Partitions can be mapped to the same or different Filegroups In SQL Server 2000, Tables and Indexes could be mapped to Filegroups – now they can also be mapped to partition schemes A Partition Function can participate in multiple Partition Schemes

42 Partitioning Key Restrictions Must be based on columns in the table Restrictions similar to index key limitations Only “Native Types” – no User-Defined Types Column values must be deterministic Deterministic imprecise columns must be persisted New Varchar(Max) is supported as partitioning key

43 Other Partitioning Restrictions Maximum of 1000 Partitions per table in SQL Server 2005 Partitions must all be on a single database Distributed Partitioned Views can be used in conjunction with table partitioning

44 Index Alignment An “aligned” index uses the same partition function and partitioning columns as its table Not necessarily same partition scheme If an index is aligned then there is a one-to-one correspondence between the index and table partitions All index entries in one index partition have the corresponding rows in a single table partition and vice-versa

45 Aligned Index One-to-One Partition Correspondence Index Partition Table Partition

46 Benefits of Index Alignment If all indexes are aligned, you can switch partitions in or out of a table instantly. Meta-data operation only, less than 1 second regardless of partition size Examples Create Partition from Table Fast bulk load, partitioned table remains available Create Table From Partition Fast delete of obsolete partition Move Partitions Between Tables Different applications may use different tables Migrate data quickly

47 Benefits of Storage Alignment Partial table availability Table is available, but some partitions are unavailable Corresponding index and table partitions are either all available or not Backup-restore Piecemeal backup and restore of large partitioned tables Partition granularity

48 Index Alignment Issue CREATE TABLE T1(col1 int, col2 int) ON s(col1) CREATE INDEX I1 ON T1(col2) Problem: Can I get Index I1 to be aligned even if it doesn’t contain col1? Solution: Allow columns not in the index key to be used in the partitioning key – these become non-key columns in the index

49 How Queries Work Since table data is now segregated, each partition must be scanned to read all rows from a table This appears in Showplan as a Join between the table and a ConstantScan containing each partition id (1, 2, 3,...) as a row

50 Collocated Joins If two tables are partitioned the same way, it may be possible to perform a join of each pair of partitions separately This is called a “collocated join” Works only for some join conditions Equi-joins on partitioning key (A.a=B.b)

51 Other Query Enhancements Many other operations can be performed “per-partition” Grouping, Filtering, Projection Inserts, Updates, Deletes Create Index, Bulk Insert SQL Server tries to find large groups of operations that can be performed per- partition to improve query performance

52 Adding/Dropping Partitions ALTER PARTITION FUNCTION pfr() {SPLIT|MERGE} [RANGE (boundary_value)] Ranges are added by specifying a new boundary point – this SPLITs the existing partition Note that ALL tables and indexes using the partition function are affected by this operation Example: Add a new month to a partitioned sales table (partitioned by month)

53 Partition Operations SPLIT - new partition is automatically populated For RANGE - by moving some rows from the partition that is split MERGE – data is automatically moved RANGE – to the neighboring “ remaining ” partition SWITCH

54 SWITCH Partition Method to move a whole partition into or out of a table efficiently Enables important manageability scenarios All indexes on table must be “aligned” (plus other restrictions)

55 SWITCHing a Partition in Q1Q2Q3 Q4 = Empty Table1 Q4 Table2 ALTER TABLE Table2 SWITCH PARTITION TO Table1 PARTITION 4

56 Before SWITCH Ø Ø T1T2 TargetSource 1234 Partition number

57 After SWITCH Ø Ø T1T2 TargetSource 124 Partition number 3

58 SWITCH Benefits Performance - allow building new and removing old partition fast Availability - allow adding new and removing old partition with minimal downtime Per-partition manageability – support as many utilities as possible to work on a per-partition basis

59 Large Table Challenge Load and Delete from a large table Table has indexes => load is slow; about 10+ times slower than loading into a heap and creating indexes afterwards Delete is slow – deleting rows is orders of magnitude slower than truncating a multi- GB table Cost of running a utility usually grows linearly with the table size

60 Large Table Solution Q: How to populate empty partition? A: Build it outside the partitioned table (BCP into a heap, create indexes), and then make it a new partition (SWITCH in)! Q: How to delete all data in one partition? A: SWITCH partition out of the partitioned table into another table then back it up, drop it or truncate it

61 SWITCH Solution Allows you to add and remove whole partition AdvantagePerformanceDisadvantages New command Restrictions – tables must satisfy certain conditions to allow SWITCH

62 SWITCH Solution Allows a separate table to become a partition of existing partitioned table (move partition “IN”) Allows a partition of a table to become a new separate table (move partition “OUT”) In most general solution it allows to “SWITCH” a partition between two partitioned tables

63 SWITCH Requirements Both the source and target tables must exist Target table or partition must be empty Metadata only operation – no data scans, copies. Therefore + SWITCH is perfectly scalable and fast (1 second or so) - SWITCH has some restrictions

64 SWITCH Restrictions Restrictions are derived from the principles of no data movement, scans Columns must have same names All target indexes must exist in the source All indexes must be aligned Corresponding target index is in the same filegroup as the source

65 Sliding Window Scenario Large Database Each hour/day/week/month… add new partition and remove the oldest one New partition – may need load, scrub, transformation before becoming a part of the whole table; or it starts as empty and is populated by transactions Old partition – may need backup, archive, restore

66 Sliding Window Scenario Think through your scenario Ensure minimal data movement for SPLITMERGE Empty partition should be the one that is “SPLIT” Watch how filegroups are assigned to partitions MERGE may cause data movement even if one partition is empty

67 Partitioning Summary Partitioning in SQL Server 2005 is primarily for Data Management SCALE UP on large (>8 way) machines Plan for it Understand the benefits and costs Identify the problem that you want to solve with partitioning

68 Resources SQL Server 2005 Mission Critical High Availability availability.mspx availability.mspx Database Mirroring Best Practices and Performance Considerations ies/dbm_best_pract.mspx ies/dbm_best_pract.mspx SQL Server 2005 Failover Clustering White Paper 4dc-a17b-4f09-b282-c6830fead499&displaylang=en 4dc-a17b-4f09-b282-c6830fead499&displaylang=en SQL Server 2005: Upgrade Your Skills px px SQL Server 2005 Upgrade Technical Reference Guide 96d c4-bd4f-c3eb2abf4b66&DisplayLang=en 96d c4-bd4f-c3eb2abf4b66&DisplayLang=en SQL Server 2005: Virtual Labs SQL Server 2005 Understanding Database Pricing

69 Customer Examples Mediterranean Shipping Company – MSC runs it 5 TB SQL database and 15 billions transacions on Database Mirroring estudyid= estudyid=49075 Austrian Broadcast Corporation (ORF) – with SQL Server 2005, ORF generates results 70% faster and also runs Database Mirroring id= id=48607 ServiceU Corporation – ServiceU runs Database Mirroring between two data centers 300 miles apart id= id=49683 Tuev Nord - one of Germany's largest technical service providers) runs its SAP Business Warehouse (BW) on SQL Server id= id=49607

70 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.


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