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CPL Air Law ATC Chapters 9. Aim To review pilot/ATS actions in response to emergencies, accidents, & incidents.

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Presentation on theme: "CPL Air Law ATC Chapters 9. Aim To review pilot/ATS actions in response to emergencies, accidents, & incidents."— Presentation transcript:

1 CPL Air Law ATC Chapters 9

2 Aim To review pilot/ATS actions in response to emergencies, accidents, & incidents

3 Objectives 1.Define an emergency & its level of urgency 2.List responsibilities of SAR 3.Differentiate between different SAR phases of emergency 4.List response actions 5.Define what a ‘mercy’ flight is 6.Detail accident/incident reporting

4 1. Defining Emergencies CAR 145 – in conforming with the rules of the CAR the PIC shall pay due regard to all dangers of flight There may be times when a pilot is faced with a situation, which requires abnormal actions to be taken – actions which may even contradict normal rules. CAR 192 – Distress signals 1.Distress signals shall be transmitted only when the aircraft is threatened with grave & immediate danger 2.Distress signals take the form of SOS (… …) & aircraft rego, 3 times 3.Following the above, an alarm may be used consisting of 12 dashes in 1 minute, with each dash being 4 seconds long & a 1 second interval between each dash When in distress - MAYDAY

5 1. Defining Emergencies CAR 192 – Distress signals (cont.) The appropriate radio call is “MAYDAY” pronounced 3 times, following by “THIS IS {insert call sign}” Alternatives include: Morse code SOS … … Red signals being fired (eg: flares & fire) Two flag signal with the letters NC Gun or explosive fired at intervals of 1 minute A MAYDAY call is the highest priority call Details found in ERSA EMERG-1 Eg: MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY, USL,USL,USL, C172 {insert altitude & location} {insert situation & possible actions} 3 POB When in distress - MAYDAY

6 1. Defining Emergencies CAR 193 – Urgency signals 1.The following may be used to attract attention to difficulties encountered compelling a pilot to land, yet without total assistance. Switching on/off landing lights Switching on/off navigation lights Use of white pyrotechnical lights 2.The following may be used in radiotelegraphy XXX Morse code transmitted 3 times (-…- -…- -…-) Or 3 repetitions of “PAN-PAN” Green pyrotechnical lights, flashes, flares A PAN-PAN is used when immediate assistance is not yet required. Eg: PAN PAN PAN, USL,USL,USL, C172 {insert altitude & location} {experience low visibility due fog, landing on agricultural strip} 3 POB Urgent situations – PAN PAN

7 2. Search & Rescue (SAR) 1.The purpose of SAR is to provide assistance to aircraft in distress & to search for, provide aid to, and organise the rescue of survivors of aircraft accidents and forced landings 2.Air Services Australia is responsible for the provision of SAR alerting and response 3.AusSAR have established an aviation Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) in Canberra responsible for the coordination of SAR operations AIP GEN 3.6

8 3. SAR Phases All ATS units are responsible for the declaration of the appropriate emergency phase. 3 Emergency Phases exist. Emergency Phases – AIP GEN 3.6 para 5 Uncertainty Phase (INCERFA): Doubt exists to the safety of the aircraft/occupants Aircraft fails to report at a specified SAR interval Aircraft engaged in irregular operations Alert Phase (ALERFA): Apprehension exists as to the safety Aircraft doesn’t land after 5min from receipt of clearance Operating efficiency of aircraft impaired Aircraft in IMC or Night when is should not Distress Phase (DETRESFA) Aircraft/occupants are in imminent danger Aircraft subject to unlawful interference Fuel on board is low or exhausted Aircraft is about to commence a forced landing

9 3. SAR Phases AIP GEN 3.6 (cont.) Following an aircraft experiencing technical difficulties the operating company may wish to make contact or forward a message. This will be in the format of (through ATC) “YOUR COMPANY ADVISES…” Flight Advice

10 4. Response & action AIP GEN 3.6 (cont.) para Radio Failure/Failure to report: Assuming the transmitter has failed but receiver is working, broadcasts will be made on alternative stations (eg: VOR, AWIS, etc) containing information on or where applicable: Lowest safe altitude Directions, bearings, DR position Emergency aerodromes/alternates Ditching weather report Navigational Assistance: Navigational aids shall be activated and used with ATS maintaining a lookout for the aircraft Aerodrome lighting activated In-Flight Response & Action

11 4. Response & action AIP GEN 3.6 (cont.) para Intercept & escort: The aircraft may be intercepted and escorted for the duration of its technical difficulties Ditching: The RCC will obtain positions of ships and: Weather report attempt to be obtained including sea conditions and a selected ditching heading Arrangements may be made for ships to provide lighting, retrieval, etc In-Flight Response & Action

12 4. Response & action Should an aircraft spot another aircraft in distress, or any other situation which may not have been reported, the PIC may declare a PANPAN. Details should include What the target is Positions/location Size Urgency of assistance Eg: another aircraft conducting a forced landing, a fire, a boat in distress, illegal fishing, etc In-Flight Response & Action

13 4. Response & action AIP ENR 1.1 para 61 Pilots are encouraged to assist in customs control by the reporting of events including (but not limited to): Marine pollution Unidentified aircraft operations including night aircraft with nav lights off. Aircraft signalling the ground Unauthorised landings by sea or air Unusual activities in remote areas In-Flight Response & Action

14 5. Mercy Flights A mercy flight is a flight for the transport of persons to provide relief, where by there is no other means of doing so. Situations include by are not limited to: Fire or flood relief A sick person requiring transport A mercy flight must only be declared by the PIC and the risks assessed. A mercy flight must not be commenced if: There are alternative means Regulations can still be satisfied The exposure to risk/hazards if deemed too great Relief can be provided to wait for more suitable assistance to arrive Definition – ENR 1.1 para 66

15 6. Accidents/Incident Reports Incidents & accidents are classified into 2 categories. Immediately Reportable Matters (IRM)  Reported ASAP, then follow up written report within 72hrs Routinely Reportable Matters (RRM)  Require written report within 72hrs Subsequent investigations performed by the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB). Who is responsible to make reports? Flight crew member Owner of aircraft ATC Maintenance engineers CASA Aerodrome operators Definition – ENR 1.14

16 6. Accidents/Incident Reports Reported ASAP, then follow up written report within 72hrs In incident involving: Death or serious injury to persons Aircraft sustains serious damage Aircraft missing The belief the aircraft has been seriously damaged Breakdown in separation standards Immediately Reportable Matters

17 6. Accidents/Incident Reports Only follow up written report within 72hrs In incident involving: Injury to persons on board Flight crew member incapacitated Narrow miss with terrain Use of a procedure to overcome an emergency Difficulty with controlling aircraft (system failure, weather, flight envelope) Fuel exhaustion or fuel low Collision with animal (eg: bird strike) Routinely Reportable Matters

18 Questions?


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