Presentation on theme: "NORTH EAST AYUTTHAYA A Canal Study By Tricky Vandenberg December 2010 Reviewed May 2011."— Presentation transcript:
NORTH EAST AYUTTHAYA A Canal Study By Tricky Vandenberg December 2010 Reviewed May 2011
NORTH EAST AYUTTHAYA, A CANAL STUDY Find hereby a study of the maps of de Courtaulin, Kaempfer, de La Loubère and the mapmaker Bellin related to the waterways in Ayutthaya’s NE corner. The map study is followed by a consolidation with my conclusions. Finally I still have some open questions, which I seek to be answered. Tricky Vandenberg December 2010
STUDY of DE COURTAULIN’S MAP Data from , updated 1685 Map published Paris 1686
R. Lopburi (old) Thamnop Ro Bridge K. Sra Bua K. Suan Phlu K. Bang Duea K. Khanom Tan K. Khao San K. Sai?
The first French map drafted by a MEF priest. De Courtaulin indicates the Lopburi River and a single waterway branching up. The western branch could be the present new Lopburi River (indicated by a series of temples, some still existing), while the eastern branch could have been a junction canal with the Pa Sak River. Old Lopburi River Pa Sak River New Lopburi River (K. Bang Duea?) Slide reviewed May 2011
STUDY of DE LA LOUBERE’S MAP Data from 1687 Map published Paris 1691
R. Lopburi K. Bang Duea R. Pa Sak K. Pradu Connection canal to R. Lopburi Thamnop Ro Bridge
Inset French version of de La Loubère's map
De La Loubère indicates the Lopburi River and also two other waterways at par with Bellin’s map. The source of the geographical information is likely the same: one of the engineers of the French Mission in the period Old Lopburi River New Lopburi River (K. Bang Duea?) Pa Sak River
STUDY of KAEMPFER’S MAP Data from1690 Published London 1727
K. Sra Bua K. Pradu Connection canal R. Lopburi K. Ayodhya AYUTTHAYA HISTORICAL RESEARCH KAEMPFER Thamnop Ro Bridge
? Kaempfer indicates the Lopburi River and another waterway. It is not clear if the latter was K. Bang Duea or a connection canal to the Pa Sak River or a connection canal to both. Kaempfer does show here in 1690 that Ko Loy and Ko Chong Lom were not yet existing. Find in the next three slides the three possibilities derived from Kaempfer’s map. Old Lopburi River Pa Sak River Slide reviewed May 2011
1 st Possibility Old Lopburi River New Lopburi River (K. Bang Duea?) Pa Sak River
2nd Possibility In this case a canal leading from the Pa Sak River to the water ring around Ayutthaya should have existed in 1690 Old Lopburi River Pa Sak River Slide reviewed May 2011
3nd Possibility Pos 1 + Pos 2 Old Lopburi River Pa Sak River New Lopburi River (K. Bang Duea?) Slide reviewed May 2011
STUDY of BELLIN’S MAP Data from 1687 Map published Paris 1750
R. Lopburi K. Bang Duea Connection canal? Thamnop Ro Bridge
Bellin indicates the Lopburi River and two other waterways. If we compare with the situation today, one waterway should have been the present new Lopburi River and the other a connection canal to the Pa Sak River. Bellin does show here that Ko Chong Lom and Ko Loi were not yet existing, and that the latter was a peninsula. Looking to the print, it seems that the connection canal, was cutting through the space of the present Ko Loy. Old Lopburi River Pa Sak River
Slide corrected v.a.v. the situation today, as at present there is no proof that an earlier canal ran through the space of present Ko Loy. Old Lopburi River New Lopburi River (K. Bang Duea?) Pa Sak River
CONSOLIDATION All the above maps cover the data in the period AD ( BE). Some maps were published later than others, and mapping data as thus could have been altered at later stage. Quick overview: –De Courtaulin: 2 waterways, one branched. –Kaempfer: 2 waterways, but leaves open whether or not branched. –De La Loubère: 3 waterways. –Bellin (map publisher): 3 waterways. My interpretation considering this 4 maps is: –End of the 17 th Century the Lopburi River was the main river encircling the ancient city of Ayutthaya. –The Pa Sak River was not yet deviated, but a connection canal must have existed running into the east branch of the Lopburi River.
CONSOLIDATION –Khlong Bang Duea, the new Lopburi River today, ran either into the east branch of the Lopburi River or into the Pa Sak connection canal. –Ko Chong Lom and Ko Loi were still part of respectively the northern and eastern mainland. We have as thus two possible versions: –Version of de La Loubère & Bellin. –Version of de Courtaulin & Kaempfer.
Version of de La Loubère & Bellin Pa Sak River Old Lopburi River
Version of de Courtaulin & Kaempfer Pa Sak River Old Lopburi River
CONSOLIDATION The version of de La Loubère & Bellin indicates that a connection canal was dug between Khlong Khu Na and the Pa Sak River. This contradict Phraya Boran Rachathanin’s writings. We are now leaving the end of the 17 th century – begin 18 th century and are jumping to Phraya Boran Rachathanin’s period in the begin of the 20 th century. Considering Phraya Boran Rachathanin (PBR) writing in 1921 AD (2464 BE) that: –He dug Khlong Chong Lom in order to reduce the whirlpools at Wat Tong Pu and the mouth of Khlong Hua Ro, which destroyed the embankment in front of Chantra Kasem Palace. –He investigated the destruction of the embankment in front of Chantra Kasem Palace and stated the reason of the destruction was, that the waters from the new Lopburi River and the Pa Sak River together collided with the water of Khlong Hua Ro (old Lopburi River) and the whirl undercut the embankment. –After he divided the waters from the Pa Sak River over two canals, the whirlpools at Wat Tong Pu and in front of the palace reduced.
CONSOLIDATION I have as thus to conclude that, only the maps of de Courtaulin & Kaempfer endorse PBR’s writings, as only these maps show the new Lopburi River and the Pa Sak River together (de La Loubère and Bellin shows the rivers separated). An issue which is still not clear to me, is when exactly the shortcut canal has been dug in the bend of the Pa Sak River (straightening of the Pa Sak River at Ban Ko). Next slides shows the changes in the 20 th century, explained by Phraya Boran Rachathanin in his paper and is based on the map versions of de Courtaulin & Kaempfer.
K. Hua Ro Pa Sak River Whirl 20 th Century K. Oom K. Hantra New Lopburi River Situation based on the maps of de Courtaulin & Kaempfer. PBR states in his paper that there are 2 whirlpools. K. Mueang K. Sai Slide reviewed May 2011
20 th Century K. Hua Ro New Lopburi River K. Oom K. Chong Lom PBR makes a second connection to the Pa Sak River to coop with the whirlpools. K. Chong Lom is dug somewhere between 1917 and 1921 (?). K. Hantra Pa Sak River K. Mueang K. Sai Slide reviewed May 2011
20 th Century K. Hua Ro New Lopburi River K. Oom Pa Sak River K. Hantra K. Chong Lom K. Mueang K. Sai Slide reviewed May 2011
20 th Century K. Hua Ro New Lopburi River K. Oom Pa Sak River K. Hantra PBR dugs another connection canal to straighten the Pa Sak River and prevent it to flow in front of the palace grounds. Apparently there was already a small canal existing (K. Sai) and was as thus widened and deepened. K. Mueang K. Sai
K. Hua Ro Pa Sak River Situation Today K. Mueang New Lopburi River K. Oom K. Chong Lom Pa Sak River K. Hantra Slide reviewed May 2011
REMAINING QUESTIONS When was the bend in the Pa Sak River near Ban Ko straightened? What year exactly was Kl. Chong Lom dug? What year was the Pa Sak River diverted through Kl. Sai? What was the ancient name of the canal, which is now the new Lopburi River? Any comments or additional information are welcome at: By Tricky Vandenberg December 2010